What Are the Causes of Multiple Sclerosis? Find the Answer in This Article

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that impacts the central nervous system. When walking, moving the arms, or doing anything, the central nervous system does not stop working. Wherein millions of nerve cells in the brain send signals all over the body in order to control these functions, such as mobility, sensation, memory, cognition, and talking.
The nerve cells communicate by sending electric signals or impulses through the nerve fibers.

There is a protective sheath that surrounds these nerve fibers called the myelin sheath, and it guarantees each nerve cell to achieve its purpose. However, when having MS, the immune system mistakenly attacks and damages the myelin sheath, which leads to halting the neuro signals. Damaged neuro signals can cause several symptoms, such as trouble walking, fainting, muscle weakness, and vision impairments.
The exact cause of Multiple sclerosis is still unknown, and scientists believe that four factors contribute to the progress of the disease.

Causes of Multiple Sclerosis

  • The Immune System:
    Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease. Wherein a disorder in the immune system causes it to attack the central nervous system, directly impacting the myelin sheath, the reason behind this attack is still unknown.
    Scientists are still looking for the immune cells responsible for this attack, in addition to methods to control or stop the progression of MS.
  • The Genetic Factor and Family History:
    Scientists believe that many genes play a role in getting Multiple sclerosis. Wherein the chance of getting MS is slightly higher if a relative has it. And according to specialists, if a parent or a sibling has MS the chance to get the disease is approximately 2.5% – 5%, whereas for normal people it is around 0.1%.
  • The Surrounding Environment:
    A growing pattern of Multiple sclerosis cases was found in countries far from the equator. This link makes doctors believe that vitamin D might play a role, since vitamin D boosts the immune system.
    People who live near the equator are more exposed to sunlight. Therefore, their bodies produce more vitamin D. The more one is exposed to sunlight, the more the body produces vitamin D normally, and vice versa. Therefore, people who live in cloudy areas without sun exposure are more at risk of getting MS.
  • Infection:
    Researchers are studying the possibility of bacteria and viruses causing Multiple sclerosis. For it is well-known that viruses cause inflammations and damage the myelin sheath. Therefore, it is possible that a virus causes MS. It is also possible that bacteria and viruses that contain components similar to the brain cells stimulate the immune system into mistakenly identifying normal brain cells as foreign, and consequently destroying them.

Other Risk Factors

  • Gender:
    Women are at least two-three times more susceptible to getting MS than men.
  • Ethnic Origin:
    People descending from North Europe are more at risk of getting Multiple sclerosis.

We have, herein, inclusively answered the question: What are the causes of Multiple sclerosis?

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