References for Nectar Honey- Mountain Honey Product

–  Anonymous. Ayurveda Aushadha Sangrahaya Part 2. Vol. 1. Sri Lanka: Maharagama; 1994. pp. 238–9.

–  Asadi-Pooya A, Pnjehshahin MR, Beheshti S. The antimycobacterial effect of honey: an in vitro study. Riv Biol. 2003;96:491–496.

– A. Abdulwahid, P. C. Joseph, and H. E. Kennedy, “Nutraceutical values of natural honey and its contribution to human health and wealth,” Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 9, article 61, 2012.

– A. Islam, M. I. Khalil, M. N. Islam et al., “Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Bangladeshi honeys stored for more than one year,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 12, article 177, 2012.

– A. Kumar, N. Sehgal, P. Kumar, S. S. V. Padi, and P. S. Naidu, “Protective effect of quercetin against ICV colchicine-induced cognitive dysfunctions and oxidative damage in rats,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 1563–1569, 2008.

– A. Lanahan and P. Worley, “Immediate-early genes and synaptic function,” Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, vol. 70, no. 1-2, pp. 37–43, 1998.

– A. Matynia, S. A. Kushner, and A. J. Silva, “Genetic approaches to molecular and cellular cognition: a focus on LTP and learning and memory,” Annual Review of Genetics, vol. 36, pp. 687–720, 2002.

– A. S. Al Mansouri, D. E. Lorke, S. M. Nurulain et al., “Methylene blue inhibits the function of a7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors,” CNS and Neurological Disorders: Drug Targets, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 791–800, 2012.

– A. U. Carlos, H. David, and G. Carmen, “Role of honey polyphenols in health,” Journal of ApiProduct and ApiMedical Science, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 141–159, 2011.

– Aazza S, Lyoussi B, Antunes D, Miguel MG. Physico-chemical characterization and antioxidant activity of commercial Portuguese honeys. J Food Sci. 2013;78:C1159–C1165.

– Aazza S, Lyoussi B, Antunes D, Miguel MG. Physico-chemical characterization and antioxidant activity of 17 commercial Moroccan honeys. Int J Food Nutr. 2014;65:449–457.

– Abdel Aziz A, Rady HM, Amer MA, Kiwan HS. Effect of Some honey bee extracts on the proliferation, proteolytic and gelatinolytic activities of the hepatocellular carcinoma Hepg2 cell line. Aus J Basic Appl Sci. 2009;3(3):2754–2769.

– Abuharfeil N, Al-Oran R, Abo-Shehada M. The effect of bee honey on the proliferative activity of human B- and T-lymphocytes and the activity of phagocytes. Food Agri Immun. 1999;11:169–177.

– Adebola, O. O. Corcoran, O. Morgan, W. A . (2014). Synbiotics: the impact of potential prebiotics inulin, lactulose and lactobionic acid on the survival and growth of lactobacilli probiotics. Journal of Functional Foods , 10: 75–84.

– Agbagwa OE, Frank-Peterside N. Effect of raw commercial honeys from Nigeria on selected pathogenic bacteria. Afr J Microbiol Res. 2010; 4(16):1801–1803.

– Ahmad A, Alam Khan R, Mesaik MA. Anti-inflammatory effect of natural honey on bovine thrombin-induced oxidative burst in phagocytes. Phytother Res. 2009;23:801–808.

– Ahmad A, Azim MK, Mesaik MA, Khan RA. Natural honey modulates physiological glycemic response compared to simulated honey and D-glucose. J Food Sci. 2008;73:H165–H167.

– Ahmadi-Motamayel F, Hendi SS, Alikhani MY, Khamverdi Z. Antibacterial activity of honey on cariogenic bacteria. J Dent (Tehran). 2013; 10(1): 10–15.

– Ahmed AK, Hoekstra MJ, Hage JJ, Karim RB. Honey-medicated dressing: transformation of an ancient remedy into modern therapy. Ann Plast Surg. 2003;50:143–147.

– Ahmed M, Djebli N, Aissat S, Bacha S, Meslem A, Khiati B. Synergistic inhibition of natural honey and potato starch and their correlation with diastase number and sugar content against Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 27736. Nat Prod Chem Res. 2012;1:102.

– Ahmed S, Othman NH. Honey as a potential natural anticancer agent: a review of its mechanisms. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:829070.

– Ajibola  A,  Chamunorwa  JP  and  Erlwanger  KH. Nutraceutical  values  of natural honey and  its contribution  to  human  health  and wealth.Nutrition & Metabolism; 2012, (61).

– Ajibola A, Chamunorwa JP, Erlwanger KH. Dietary supplementation with natural honey promotes growth and health of male and female rats compared to cane syrup. Sci Res Essay. 2013;8(14):543–553.

– Ajibola A, Chamunorwa JP, Erlwanger KH. Nutraceutical values of natural honey and its contribution to human health and wealth. Nutr Metabol. 2012;9:61.

– Ajibola A, Chamunorwa JP, ErlwangerKH. Long-term dietary supplementation with natural honey does not predispose growing male rats to metabolic syndrome. BMC Proceedings. 2012;6(S3):3.

– Ajibola A, Idowu GO, Amballi AA, Oyefuga OH, Iquot IS. Improvement of some haematological parameters in albino rats with pure natural honey. J Biol Sci Res. 2007;2:67–69.

– Ajibola A. Chamunorwa JP, Erlwanger KH: Comparative effects of honey and sugar on the morphometry of viscera in growing Sprague-Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus). In Book of Abstract of 31st Scientific Conference: 7–9 September 2011. Physiological Society of Nigeria (PSN), Sokoto; 2011. p. 9.

– Ajibola A. Effects of dietary supplementation with pure natural honey on metabolism in growing Sprague-Dawley rats [(Phd thesis) Johannesburg, South Africa]: University of the Witwatersrand; 2013.

– Ajibola A. Physiological effects of natural honey on wounds in animals. 1st ed. S. Lynch (KG, Germany): LAP; 2014.

– Ajibola AA. Honey in the post-surgical wound management in goats [DVM dissertation (Ibadan)]:, Nigeria: University of Ibadan; 1995.

– Al Swayeh OA, Ali ATMM. Effect of ablation of capsaicin sensitive neurons on gastric protection by honey and sucralfate. Hepato-Gastroenterol, 1998;45(19): 297–302.

– Al-Bukhari M. Sahih Bukhari Nazi Publications. 3 Rev Edition. 740A.D, Chicago LISA; 1976.

– Ali AT, Chowdhury MN, Al Humayyd MS. Inhibitory effect of natural honey on Helicobacter pylori. Trop Gastroenterol. 1991;12:139–143.

– Ali ATM. Natural honey accelerates healing of indomethacin-induced antral ulcers in rats. Saudi Med J . 1995;16:161–166.

– Ali ATMM. Natural honey accelerates healing of indomethacin induced antral ulcers in rats. Saudi Med J. 1995;16:161–166.

– Ali ATMM. Natural honey exerts its protective effects against ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats by preventing depletion of glandular non protein sulfhydryls. Trop Gastroenterol. 1995;16:18–26.

– Ali ATMM. Natural honey prevents ischaemia-reperfusion induced gastric mucosal lesions and increased vascular permeability in rats. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1997;9:1101–1107.

– Alissandrakis E, Tarantilis PA, Harizanis PC, Polissiou M. Aroma investigation of unifloral Greek citrus honey using solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis. Food Chem. 2007;100:396–404.

– Aliyu M, Odunola OA, Farooq AD, et al. Molecular mechanism of antiproliferation potential of Acacia honey on NCI-H460 cell line. Nutr Cancer. 2013;65:296–304.

– Al-Jabri A, Al Mahrooqi Z, Nzeako B, Nsanze H. Inhibition effect of honey on the adherence of Salmonella to intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Int J Food Microbiol. 2005;103(3):347–351.

– Al-Jabri AA. Honey, milk and antibiotics. Afr J Biotechnol. 2005;4:1580–1587.

– Aljadi AM, Kamaruddin MY. Evaluation of the phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of two Malaysian floral honeys. Food Chem. 2004;85:513–518.

– Allen, K. L. Molan, P. C. Reid, G. M . (1991). A survey of the antibacterial activity of some New Zealand honeys. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology , 43: 817–822.

– Al-Mamary M, Al-Meeri A, Al-Habori M. Antioxidant activities and total phenolics of different types of honey. Nutr Res. 2002;22:1041–1047.

– Alnaqdy A, Al-Jabri A, Al Mahrooqi Z, Nzeako B, Nsanze H. Inhibition effect of honey on the adherence of Salmonella to intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Int J Food Microbiol. 2005;103:347–351.

– Al-Quassemi R, Robinson RK. Some special nutritional properties of honey – a brief review. Nutr Food Sci. 2003;33:254–260.

– Aluko EO, Olubobokun TH, Enobong IB, Atang DE. Comparative study of effect of honey on blood pressure and heart rate in healthy male and female subjects. Br J Med Med Res. 2013;3(4):2214–2221.

– Alvarez-Suarez JM, Giampier F, Battino M. Honey as a source of dietary antioxidants: structures, bioavailability and evidence of protective effects against human chronic diseases. Curr Med Chem. 2013;20:621–638.

– Alvarez-Suarez JM, Tulipani S, Diaz D, Estevez Y, Romandini S, Giampieri F, et al. Antioxidant and antimicrobial capacity of several monofloral Cuban honeys and their correlation with color, polyphenol content and other chemical compounds. Food Chem Toxic. 2010;48(8–9):2490–2499.

– Alvarez-Suarez JM, Tulipani S, Romandini S, Bertoli E, Battino M. Contribution of honey in nutrition and human health: a review. Mediterranean J Nutr Metab. 2010;3:15–23.

– Alvarez-Suarez JM, Tulipani S, Romandini S, Vidal A, Battino M. Methodological aspects about determination of phenolic compounds and in vitro evaluation of antioxidant capacity in the honey: a review. Curr Anal Chem. 2009;5:293–302.

– Al-Waili N, Al-Ghamdi A, Ansari MJ, Al-Attal Y, Salom K. Synergistic effects of honey and propolis toward drug multi-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans isolates in single and polymicrobial cultures. Int J Med Sci. 2012;9:793–800.

– Al-Waili N, Saloom K. Honey to treat post-operative wound infections due to gram positive and gram negative bacteria following caesarian section and hysterectomies. Eur J Med Res. 1999;4:126–141.

– Al-Waili N. Intrapulmonary administration of natural honey solution, hyperosmolar dextrose or hypoosmolar distill water to normal individuals and to patients with type-2diabetes mellitus or hypertension: Their effects on blood glucose level, plasma insulin and C-peptide, blood pressure and peaked expiratory flow rate. Eur J Med Res. 2003;8:295–303.

– Al-Waili NS, Boni NS. Natural honey lowers plasma prostaglandin concentrations in normal individuals. J Med Food. 2003;6:129–133.

– Al-Waili NS, Haq A. Effect of honey on antibody production against thymus-dependent and thymus-independent antigens in primary and secondary immune responses. J Med Food. 2004;7:491–494.

– Al-Waili NS, Salom K, Al-Ghamdi A. Honey for wound healing, ulcers, and burns; data supporting its use in chemical practice. Sci World J. 2011;11:766–787.

– Al-Waili NS. Clinical and mycological benefits of topical application of honey, olive oil and beeswax in diaper dermatitis. Clin Microbiol Inf. 2005;11(2):160–163.

– Al-Waili NS. Effects of daily consumption of honey solution on hematological indices and blood levels of minerals and enzymes in normal individuals. J Med Food. 2003;6:135–140.

– Al-Waili NS. Investigating the antimicrobial activity of natural honey and its effects on the pathogenic bacterial infections of surgical wounds and conjunctiva. J Med Food . 2004;7:210–222.

– Al-Waili NS. Mixture of honey, bees wax and olive oil inhibits growth of staphylococcus aureus and candida albicans. Arch Med Res. 2005;36:10–13.

– Al-Waili NS. Natural honey lowers plasma glucose, c-reactive protein, homocysteine, and blood lipids in healthy, diabetic, and hyperlipidemic subjects: comparison with dextrose and sucrose. J Med Food. 2004;7:100–107.

– Al-Waili NS. Therapeutic and prophylactic effects of crude honey on chronic seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff. Eur J Med Res. 2001;6:306–308.

– Al-Waili NS. Topical honey application vs. acyclovir for the treatment of recurrent herpes simplex lesions. Med Sci Monit. 2004;10:MT94–MT98.

– Anal, A. K. Singh, H . (2007). Recent advances in microencapsulation of probiotics for industrial applications and targeted delivery. Trends in Food Science and Technology , 18: 240–251.

– Andrade P, Ferreres F, Amaral MT. Analysis of honey phenolic acids by HPLC, its application to honey botanical characterization. J Liq Chromatogr Relat Technol. 1997;20:2281–2288.

– Andrade P, Ferreres F, Gil MI, Tomas-Barberan FA. Determination of phenolic compounds in honeys with different floral origin by capillary zone electrophoresis. Food Chem. 1997;60:79–84.

– Anklam, E . (1998). A review of the analytical methods to determine the geographical and botanical origin of honey. Food Chemistry , 63: 549–562.

– An-Nahl  (The  Bee)  Chapter  16.  The  Holy Quran, English  translation  of  the meanings  and Commentary.  The  Presidency  of  Islamic Researches,  IFTA, Call  and  Guidance.  Kingdom of  Saudi  Arabia, King Fahd  Holy  Quran Printing Complex, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah: 1990, 730-773.

– An-Nahl (The Bee) 16, 68 – 69. The Holy Qur’an, English translation of the meanings and Commentary. The Presidency of Islamic Researches, IFTA, Call and Guidance. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: King Fahd Holy Qur’an Printing Complex, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah; 1990. p. 753. 1410 A.H.

– Anonymous. Rajaushadha Nidhiya. Colombo, Sri Lanka: Department of Ayurveda; 1943. pp. 84–119.

– Antonio  Nicolas.  Mediation  through  the Rgvede.  Author’s  Choice  Press  Lincolin  USA, 2003.

– Ariefdjohan MW, Martin BR, Lachcik PJ, Weaver CM. Acute and chronic Effects of honey and its carbohydrate constituents on calcium absorption in rats. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:2649–2654.

– Arvanitoyannis IS, Chalhoub C, Gotsiou P, Lydarkis-Simantiris N, Kefalas P. Novel quality control methods in conjunction with chemometrics (multivariate analysis) for detecting honey authenticity. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2005;45:193–203.

– Asahara, T. Nomoto, K. Shimizu, K. Watanuki, M. Tanaka, R . (2001). Increased resistance of mice to salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium infection by synbiotic administration of bifidobacteria and transgalactosylated oligosaccharides. Journal of Applied Microbiology , 91: 985–996.

– Astwood, K. Lee, B. Manley-Harris, M . (1998). Oligosaccharides in New Zealand honeydew honey. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry , 46: 4958–4962.

– Atia, A. Gomaa, A. Fliss, I. Beyssac, E. Garrait, G. Subirade, M . (2016). A prebiotic matrix for encapsulation of probiotics: physicochemical and microbiological study. Journal of Microencapsulation , 33: 89–101.

– Attia WY, Gabry MS, El-Shaikh KA, Othman GA. The anti-tumor effect of bee honey in Ehrlich ascite tumor model of mice is coincided with stimulation of the immune cells. Egypt J Immunol. 2008;15(2):169– 183.

– Atwa AA, AbuShahba RY, Mostafa M, Mohamed IH. Effect of honey in preventing gingivitis and dental caries in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. Saudi Dent J. 2014;26(3):108–114.

– Axelsson, L. T. Chung, T. C. Dobrogosz, W. J. Lindgren, S. E . (1989). Production of a broad spectrum antimicrobial substance by Lactobacillus reuteri . Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease , 2: 131–136.

– B. A. Sutherland, R. M. A. Rahman, and I. Appleton, “Mechanisms of action of green tea catechins, with a focus on ischemia-induced neurodegeneration,” The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 291–306, 2006.

– B. Xu, X.-X. Li, G.-R. He et al., “Luteolin promotes long-term potentiation and improves cognitive functions in chronic cerebral hypoperfused rats,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 627, no. 1–3, pp. 99–105, 2010.

– Bahrami M, Ataie-Jafari A, Hosseini S, Forouzanfar M, Rahmani M, Pajouhi M. Effects of natural honey consumption in diabetic patients: an 8-week randomized clinical trial. Int J Food Sci Nutr . 2008;2:1–9.

– Bahrami M, Ataie-Jafari A, Hosseini S, Foruzanfar MH, Rahmani M, Pajouhi M. Effects of natural honey consumption in diabetic patients: An 8-week randomized clinical trial. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2009;60:618–626.

– Ball DW. The chemical composition  of  honey. J Chem Edu, 2007; 84: 643–646.

– Baltuskevicius A, Laiskonis A, Vysniauskiene D, Ceksteryte V, Racys J. Use of different kinds of honey for hepatitis A treatment and for reduction of increased acidity of gastric juice. Zemdirbyste Mokslo Darbai. 2001;76:173–180.

– Bang LM, Buntting C, Molan PC. The effect of dilution on the rate of hydrogen peroxide production in honey and its implications for wound healing. J Alt Compl Med. 2003;9:267–273.

– Bansal V, Medhi B, Pandhi P. Honey -A remedy rediscovered and its therapeutic utility. Kathmandu Univ Med J. 2005;3:305–309.

– Barrientos S, Stojadinovic O, Golinko MS, Brem H, Tomic-Canic M. Growth factors and cytokines in wound healing. Wound Rep Reg. 2008;16:585–601.

– Bashkaran K, Zunaina E, Bakiah S, Sulaiman SA, Sirajudeen KN, Naik V. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Tualang honey in alkali injury on the eyes of rabbits: experimental animal study. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011;11:90.

– Basualdo C, Sgroy V S, Finola M M, Marioli J. Comparison of the antibacterial activity of honey from different provenance against bacteria usually isolated from skin wounds. Veter Microbiol. 2007;124:375–381.

– Beck B, Smedley D. Honey and your health. 2. McBride, New York, USA; 1944.

– Beheshtipour, H. Mortazavian, A. M. Mohammadi, R. Sohrabvandi, S. Khosravi-Darani, K . (2013). Supplementation of Spirulina platensis and Chlorella vulgaris algae into probiotic fermented milks. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety , 12: 144–154.

– Belitz  HD,  Grosch  W  and  Schieberle  P.  Food Chem. 2009; 886 – 890.

– Belouali  H,  Bouaka  M  and  Hakkou  AA. Determination  of  Some  Major  and  Minor Elements  in  the  East  of  Morocco  Honeys through  Inductively  Coupled  Plasma  Optical Emission  Spectrometry.  Apiacta,  2008;  43:  17-24.

– Bel-Serrat S, Mouratidou T, Börnhorst C, et al. Food consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in European children: the IDEFICS study. Pediatr Obes. 2012;8:225–236.

– Beretta  G,  Granata  P,  Ferrero  M,  Orioli  M  and Maffei Facino  R.  Standardization of antioxidant properties  of  honey  by  a  combination  of spectrophotometric/fluorimetric  assays  and chemometrics. Anal Chim Acta, 2005; 533, 185–191.

– Bergman A, Yanai J, Weiss J, Bell D, David P. Acceleration of wound healing by topical application of honey. An animal model. Am J Surg. 1983;145:374–376.

– Bertoncelj J, Dobersek U,  Jamnik  M and Golob T.  Evaluation  of  the  phenolic  content, antioxidant  activity  and  color  of  Slovenian honey. Food Chem, 2007; 105: 822–828.

– Bian, L. Molan, A. Maddox, I. Shu, Q . (2011). Antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus reuteri DPC16 supernatants against selected food borne pathogens. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology , 27: 991–998.

– Bianchi EM. Honey: Its importance in children’s nutrition. Am Bee J. 1977;117:733.

– Bibi S, Husain SZ, Malik RN. Pollen analysis and heavy metals detection in honey samples from seven selected countries. Pak J Bot. 2008;40(2):507–516.

– Bilsel Y, Bugra D, Yamaner S, Bulut T, Cevikbas U, Turkoglu U. Could honey have a place in colitis therapy? Effects of honey, prednisolone and disulfiram on inflammation, nitric oxide, and free radical formation. Dig Surg. 2002;19:306–311.

– Bindels, L. B. Delzenne, N. M. Cani, P. D. Walter, J . (2015). Opinion: towards a more comprehensive concept for prebiotics. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology , 12: 303–310.

– Blasa M, Candiracci M, Accorsi A, Piacentini MP, Albertini MC  and Piatti  E.  Raw millefiori honey is  packed  full  of  antioxidants.  Food  Chem, 2006; 97: 217–222.

– Blasa M, Candiracci M, Accorsi A, Piacentini MP, Piatti E. Honey flavonoids as protection agents against oxidative damage to human red blood cells. Food Chem. 2007;104:1635–1640.

– Bogdanov  S.  Harmonised  methods  of  the international  honey  commission.  Swiss  Bee Research  Center,  FAM,  Liebefeld,  CH-3003 Bern, Switzerland, 1999.

– Bogdanov S Jurendic T, Sieber R, Gallmann P. Honey for nutrition and health: A Review. J Am Coll Nutr . 2008;27:677–689.

– Bogdanov S. Contaminants of bee products. Apidologie. 2006;38:1–18.

– Bogdanov, S. Jurendic, T. Sieber, R. Gallmann, P . (2008). Honey for nutrition and health: a review. Journal of the American College of Nutrition , 27: 677–689.

– Bogdanov, S. Martin, P . (2002). Honey authenticity. Mitteilungen Aus Lebensmitteluntersuchung Und Hygiene , 93: 232–254.

– Bomba, A. Nemcová, R. Mudronová, D. Guba, P . (2002). The possibilities of potentiating the efficacy of probiotics. Trends in Food Science and Technology , 13: 121–126.

– Brady N, Molan P, Bang L. A survey of non-manuka New Zealand honeys for antibacterial and antifungal activities. J Apicul Res. 2004;43:47–52.

– Brady NF, Molan PC, Harfoot CG. The sensitivity of dermatophytes to the antimicrobial activity of manuka honey and other honey. J Pharm Sci. 1997;2:1–3.

– Brand-Miller J, et al. (2009). Dietary Glycemic Index: Health Implications. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 28:446S-449S.

– Bravo L. Polyphenols: chemistry, dietary sources, metabolism and nutritional significance. Nut Rev. 1998;56:317–333.

– Brudzynski K, Kim L. Storage-induced chemical changes in active components of honey de-regulate its antibacterial activity. Food Chem. 2011;126:1155–1163.

– Brudzynski K, Maldonado-Alvarez L. Polyphenol-protein complexes and their consequences for the redox activity, structure and function of honey. A current view and new hypothesis – a review. Pol J Food Nutr Sci. 2015;65:71–80.

– Brudzynski K, Miotto D. Honey melanoidins. Analysis of a composition of the high molecular weight melanoidin fractions exhibiting radical scavenging capacity. Food Chem. 2011;127:1023–1030.

– Brudzynski K, Miotto D. The recognition of high molecular weight melanoidins as the main components responsible for radical-scavenging capacity of unheated and heat-treated Canadian honeys. Food Chem. 2011;125:570–575.

– Brudzynski K, Miotto D. The relationship between the content of Maillard reaction-like products and bioactivity of Canadian honeys. Food Chem. 2010;124:869–874.

– Brudzynski K, Sjaarda C, Lannigan R. MRJP1-containing glycoproteins isolated from honey, a novel antibacterial drug candidate with broad spectrum activity against multi-drug resistant clinical isolates. Front Microbiol. 2015;6:711.

– Brudzynski K, Sjaarda C, Maldonado-Alvarez L. A new look on protein-polyphenol complexation during honey storage: is this a random or organized event with the help of dirigent-like proteins? PLoS ONE. 2013

– Bucekova M, Majtan J. The MRJP1 honey glycoprotein does not contribute to the overall antibacterial activity of natural honey. Eur Food Res Technol. 2016;242:625–629.

– Burgain, J. Gaiani, C. Linder, M. Scher, J . (2011). Encapsulation of probiotic living cells: from laboratory scale to industrial applications. Journal of Food Engineering , 104: 467–483.

– Busserolles J, Gueux E, Rock E, Mazur A, Rayssiquier Y. Substituting honey for refined carbohydrates protects rats from hypertriglyceridemic and prooxidative effects of fructose. J Nutr. 2002;132(11):3379–3382.

– C. E. Manyi-Loh, A. M. Clarke, and R. N. Ndip, “An overview of honey: therapeutic properties and contribution in nutrition and human health,” African Journal of Microbiology Research, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 844–852, 2011.

– C. E. Manyi-Loh, R. N. Ndip, and A. M. Clarke, “Volatile compounds in honey: a review on their involvement in aroma, botanical origin determination and potential biomedical activities,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 9514–9532, 2011.

– C. Wolfman, H. Viola, A. Paladini, F. Dajas, and J. H. Medina, “Possible anxiolytic effects of chrysin, a central benzodiazepine receptor ligand isolated from Passiflora coerulea,” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 1–4, 1994.

– C.-H. Jeong, H. R. Jeong, G. N. Choi, D.-O. Kim, U. Lee, and H. J. Heo, “Neuroprotective and anti-oxidant effects of caffeic acid isolated from Erigeron annuus leaf,” Chinese Medicine, vol. 6, article 25, 2011.

– C.-Y. Cheng, S.-Y. Su, N.-Y. Tang, T.-Y. Ho, S.-Y. Chiang, and C.-L. Hsieh, “Ferulic acid provides neuroprotection against oxidative stress-related apoptosis after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibiting ICAM-1 mRNA expression in rats,” Brain Research, vol. 1209, pp. 136–150, 2008.

– C.-Y. Cheng, S.-Y. Su, N.-Y. Tang, T.-Y. Ho, W.-Y. Lo, and C.-L. Hsieh, “Ferulic acid inhibits nitric oxide-induced apoptosis by enhancing GABA B1 receptor expression in transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats,” Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 889–899, 2010.

– Cabras P, Angioni A, Tuberoso C, et al. Homogentisic acid: a phenolic acid as a marker of strawberry-tree (Arbutus unedo) honey. J Agric Food Chem. 1999;47:4064–4067.

– Cardarelli HR, Saad SM, Gibson GR, Vulevic J. Functional petit-suisse cheese: measure of the prebiotic effect. Anareobe. 2007;13:200–207.

– Carter JR, Palihawardena M. The Dhammapada. (The  saying  of  Buddha).  Oxford  University Press, 2000 .

– Casas, I. A. Dobrogosz, W. J . (2000). Validation of the probiotic concept: Lactobacillus reuteri confers broad-spectrum protection against disease in humans and animals. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease , 12: 247–285.

– Castro-Vázquez L, Díaz-Maroto MC, Pérez-Coello MS. Aroma composition and new chemical markers of Spanish citrus honeys. Food Chem. 2007;103:601–606.

– Cavanagh D, Beazley J, Ostapowicz F. Radical operation for carcinoma of the vulva. A new approach to wound healing. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw. 1970;77:1037–1040.

– Chaikham P, Kemsawasd V, Apichartsrangkoon A. Effects of conventional on physicochemical properties and antioxidant capacity of floral honeys from Northern Thailand. Food Biosci. 2016;15:19–26.

– Champagne, C. P. Gardner, N. J. Roy, D . (2005). Challenges in the addition of probiotic cultures to foods. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition , 45: 61–84.

– Chang X, Wang J, Yang S, Chen S, Song Y. Antioxidative, antibrowning and antibacterial activities of sixteen floral honeys. Food Funct. 2011;2:541–546.

– Chen L, Mehta A, Berenbaum M, Zangerl AR, Engeseth NJ. Honeys from different floral sources as inhibitors of enzymatic browning in fruit and vegetable homogenates. J Agri Food Chem. 2000;48:4997–5000.

– Chen, S. Cao, Y. Ferguson, L. R. Shu, Q. Garg, S . (2012). Flow cytometric assessment of the protectants for enhanced in vitro survival of probiotic lactic acid bacteria through simulated human gastro-intestinal stresses. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology , 95: 345–356.

– Chen, S. Cao, Y. Ferguson, L. R. Shu, Q. Garg, S . (2012). The effect of immobilization of probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri DPC16 in sub-100 µm microcapsule on food-borne pathogens. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology , 28: 2447–2452.

– Chen, S. Ferguson, L. R. Shu, Q. Garg, S . (2011). The application of flow cytometry to the characterisation of a probiotic strain Lactobacillus reuteri DPC16 and the evaluation of sugar preservatives for its lyophilization. LWT–Food Science and Technology , 44: 1873–1879.

– Chen, S. Zhao, Q. Ferguson, L. R. Shu, Q. Weir, I. Garg, S . (2012). Development of a novel probiotic delivery system based on microencapsulation with protectants. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology , 93: 1447–1457.

– Chepulis L, Starkey N. The long-term effects of feeding honey compared to sucrose and a sugar-free diet on weight gain, lipid profiles, and DEXA measurements in rats. J Food Sci. 2008;73(1):S1–S7.

– Chepulis LM, Starkey NJ, Waas JR, Molan PC. The effects of long-term honey, sucrose or sugar-free diets on memory and anxiety in rats. Physiol Behav. 2009;97(3–4):359–368.

– Chepulis LM. The effect of honey compared to sucrose, mixed sugars, and a sugar-free diet on weight gain in young rats. J Food Sci. 2007;72:S224–S229.

– Chepulis LM. The effects of honey compared with sucrose and a sugar-free diet on neutrophil phagocytosis and lymphocyte numbers after long-term feeding in rats. J. Compl Integrat Med. 2007;4(1):1–7.

– Chepulis LM. The effects of honey compared with sucrose and a sugar-free diet on neutrophil phagocytosis and lymphocyte numbers after long-term feeding in rats. J Compl Integrat Med. 2007;4(1):1–9.

– Cherbuliez T. The  medicine from  the bees. CD-ROM Apimondia, 2001.

– Chick H, Shin HS, Ustunol Z. Growth and acid production by lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria grown in skim milk containing honey. J Food Sci. 2001;66:478–481.

– Childs  CS.  The  Book  of  Exodus.  Westminster John Knox Press, 2004.

– Chow J. Probiotics and prebiotics: a brief overview. J Ren Nutr. 2002;12:76–86.

– Chowdhury M. Honey: is it worth rubbing it in? J Rl Soc Med. 1999;92:663–664.

– Chua LS, Abdul-Rahaman NL, Sarmidi MR, Aziz R. Multi-elemental composition and physical properties of honey samples from Malaysia. Food Chem. 2012;135(3):880–887.

– Ciulu M, Spano N, Pilo MI, Sanna G. Recent advances in the analysis of phenolic compounds in unifloral honeys. Molecules. 2016;24:451.

– Cogolludo A, Frazziano G, Briones AM, et al. The dietary flavonoid quercetin activates BKCa currents in coronary arteries via production of H2O2. Role in vasodilatation. Cardiovasc Res. 2007;73:424–431.

– Collins, M. D. Gibson, G. R . (1999). Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics: approaches for modulating the microbial ecology of the gut. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition , 69: 1052S–1057S.

– Cook, M. T. Tzortzis, G. Charalampopoulos, D. Khutoryanskiy, V. V . (2012). Microencapsulation of probiotics for gastrointestinal delivery. Journal of Controlled Release , 162: 56–67.

– Cooper RA, Molan PC, Harding KG. The sensitivity to honey of Gram-positive cocci of clinical significance isolated from wounds. J Applied Microbiol. 2002;93:857–863.

– Cortés ME, Vigil P, Montenegro G. The medicinal value of honey: A review on its benefits to human health, with a special focus on its effects on glycemic regulation. Cien Inv Agr. 2011;38:303–317.

– Costa Neto EM. A etnocategoria “inseto” e a hipótese da ambivalência entomoprojetiva. Acta Biológica Leopoldensia. 1999;2:7–14.

– Costa-Neto EM. Folk Taxonomy and cultural significance of “Abeia”(Insecta: Hymenoptera) to the Pankararé, Northeastern Bahia State, Brazil. J Ethnobiol. 1998;18:1–13.

– Crane E. In: Honey, A Comprehensive Survey. Crane E, editor. William Heinemann, London; 1975. History of honey; pp. 439–488.

– Cuevas-Glory LF, Pino JA, Santiago LS, Sauri-Duch E. A review of volatile analytical methods for determining the botanical origin of honey. Food Chem. 2007;103:1032–1043.

– Cummings, J. H. Macfarlane, G. T. Englyst, H. N . (2001). Prebiotic digestion and fermentation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition , 73(2 Supp): 415S–420S.

– D. Dhingra, R. Chhillar, and A. Gupta, “Antianxiety-like activity of gallic acid in unstressed and stressed mice: possible involvement of nitriergic system,” Neurochemical Research, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 487–494, 2012.

– D. Harman, “Aging: a theory based on free radical and radiation chemistry,” Journal of Gerontology, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 298–300, 1956.

– D. Vauzour, G. Corona, and J. P. E. Spencer, “Caffeic acid, tyrosol and p-coumaric acid are potent inhibitors of 5-S-cysteinyl-dopamine induced neurotoxicity,” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 501, no. 1, pp. 106–111, 2010.

– da Silva CI, Aazza S, Faleiro ML, Miguel MG, Neto L. The antibacterial, anti-biofilm, anti-inflammatory and virulence inhibition properties of Portuguese honeys. J Apic Res. 2016;55:292–304.

– da Silva PM, Gauche C, Gonzaga LV, Costa ACO, Fett R. Honey: chemical composition, stability and authenticity. Food Chem. 2016;196:309–323.

– Daneshmand, A. Sadeghi, G. H. Karimi, A. Vaziry, A. Ibrahim, S. A . (2015). Evaluating complementary effects of ethanol extract of propolis with the probiotic on growth performance, immune response and serum metabolites in male broiler chickens. Livestock Science , 178, 195–201.

– Das, U. N . (2002). Essential fatty acids as possible enhancers of the beneficial actions of probiotics. Nutrition , 18: 786–789.

– Dash RK. Charaka Samhita. Vol. 1. Varanasi, India: Chowkhamba Sanskrit series office; 1972. pp. 540–2.

– de Assis POA, Guerra GCB, Araújo DFS, et al. Intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of goat milk and goat yoghurt in the acetic acid model of rat colitis. Int Dairy J. 2016;56:45–54.

– Decaix C. Comparative study of sucrose and honey. Chir Dent Fr. 1976;46:59–60.

– Devasvaran K, Yong Y-K. Anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties of Malaysia Tualang Honey. Curr Sci. 2016;110:47–51.

– Dewulf, E. M. et al.   . (2013). Insight into the prebiotic concept: lessons from an exploratory, double blind intervention study with inulin-type fructans in obese women. Gut , 62: 1112–1121.

– Dimitrova B, Gevrenova R, Anklam E. Analysis of phenolic acids in honeys of different floral origin by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. Phytochem Anal. 2007;18:24–32.

– Doner, L. W . (1977). The sugars of honey—a review. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture , 28: 443–456.

– Dore, M. P. Cuccu, M. Pes, G. M. Manca, A. Graham, D. Y . (2014). Lactobacillus reuteri in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. Internal and Emergency Medicine , 9: 649–654.

– Dore, M. P. Goni, E. Di Mario, F . (2015). Is there a role for probiotics in Helicobacter pylori therapy? Gastroenterology Clinics of North America , 44: 565–575.

– (2016). Drapac. Available at: (accessed 15 September 2016).

– Dunford C, Cooper R, Molan PC. Using honey as a dressing for infected skin lesions. Nurs Times. 2000;96:7–9.

– Dustmann JH. Antibacterial effect of honey. Apiacta. 1979;14:7–11.

– E. Esposito, D. Rotilio, V. di Matteo, C. di Giulio, M. Cacchio, and S. Algeri, “A review of specific dietary antioxidants and the effects on biochemical mechanisms related to neurodegenerative processes,” Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 719–735, 2002.

– E. J. Amy and M. E. Carlos, “Medical uses of honey,” Revista Biomédica, vol. 7, pp. 43–49, 1996.

– E. Mariani, M. C. Polidori, A. Cherubini, and P. Mecocci, “Oxidative stress in brain aging, neurodegenerative and vascular diseases: an overview,” Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, vol. 827, no. 1, pp. 65–75, 2005.

– E. Schültke, E. Kendall, H. Kamencic, Z. Ghong, R. W. Griebel, and B. H. J. Juurlink, “Quercetin promotes functional recovery following acute spinal cord injury,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 583–591, 2003.

– E. Thiels, B. I. Kanterewicz, E. D. Norman, J. M. Trzaskos, and E. Klann, “Long-term depression in the adult hippocampus in vivo involves activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phosphorylation of Elk-1,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 2054–2062, 2002.

– E. Uzar, H. Alp, M. U. Cevik et al., “Ellagic acid attenuates oxidative stress on brain and sciatic nerve and improves histopathology of brain in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,” Neurological Sciences, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 567–574, 2012.

– Earnest CP, Lancaster SL, Rasmussen CJ, Kerksick CM, Lucia A, Greenwood MC, Almada AL, Cowand PA, Kreider RB. Low versus high glycemic index meals carbohydrate gel ingestion during simulated 64 km cycling time trial performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2004;18:466–472.

– Edebo L, Kohlstrom E, Magnusson K, Stendahl O. The hydrophobic effect and charge effects in the adhesion of enterobacteria to animal cell surfaces and the influences of antibodies of different immunoglobulin classes. In: Curtis A, Pitts H, editors. Cell Adhesion and Motility. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; pp. 65–101.

– Edgar WM, Jenkins GN. Solubility-reducing agents in honey and partly-refined crystalline sugar. Br Dent J. 1974;136:7–14.

– Efem SEE. Clinical observations on the wound healing properties of honey. Br J Surg. 1988;75:679–681.

– El-Kott AF, Kandeel AA, El-Aziz SFA, Ribea HM. Anti-tumor effects of bee honey on PCNA and P53 expression in the rat hepatocarcinogenesis. Int J Cancer Res. 2012;8:130–139.

– Emarah MH. A clinical study of the topical use of bee honey in the treatment of some occular diseases. Bull Islam Med. 1982;2(5):422–425.

– Emsen IM. A different and safe method of split thickness skin graft fixation: Medical honey application. Burns. 2007;33:782–787.

– Eratte, D. McKnight, S. Gengenbach, T. R. Dowling, K. Barrow, C. J. Adhikari, B. P . (2015). Co-encapsulation and characterisation of omega-3 fatty acids and probiotic bacteria in whey protein isolate-gum Arabic complex coacervates. Journal of Functional Foods , 19, 882–892.

– Erejuwa OO, Gurtu S, Sulaiman SA, Wahab MS, Sirajudeen KN, Salleh MS. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of honey supplementation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2010;80:74–82.

– Erejuwa OO, Nwobodo NN, Akpan JL, et al. Nigerian honey ameliorates hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Nutrients. 2016;8:95.

– Erejuwa OO, Sulaiman SA, Ab Wahab MS, Sirajudeen KN, Salleh S, Gurtu S. Honey supplementation in spontaneously hypertensive rats elicits antihypertensive effect via amelioration of renal oxidative stress. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2012;2012:374037.

– Erejuwa OO, Sulaiman SA, Ab Wahab MS, Sirajudeen KNS, Salzihan MS. Effects of Malaysian tualang honey supplementation on glycemia, free radical scavenging enzymes and markers of oxidative stress in kidneys of normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Int J Cardiol. 2009;137:S45.

– Erejuwa OO, Sulaiman SA, Ab Wahab MS. Honey: a novel antioxidant. Molecules. 2012;17:4400–4423.

– Erejuwa OO, Sulaiman SA, Ab-Wahab MS, Sirajudeen KN, Salleh MS, Gurtu S. Differential responses to blood pressure and oxidative stress in streptozotocininduced diabetic wistar-kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats: Effects of antioxidant (honey) treatment. Int J Mol Sci. 2011;12(3):1888–1907.

– Erejuwa OO, Sulaiman SA, Wahab MS, Sirajudeen KN, Salleh MS, Gurtu S. Glibenclamide or metformin combined with honey improves glycemic control in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Int J Biol Sci. 2011;7:244–252.

– Erejuwa OO, Sulaiman SA, Wahab MS. Effects of honey and its mechanisms of action on the development and progression of cancer. Molecules. 2014;19:2497–2522.

– Erejuwa OO, Sulaiman SA, Wahab MS. Fructose might contribute to the hypoglycemic effect of honey. Molecules. 2012;17:1900–1915.

– Erejuwa OO, Sulaiman SA, Wahab MS. Honey-a novel antidiabetic agent. Int J Biol Sci. 2012;8:913–934.

– Erejuwa OO, Sulaiman SA, Wahab MS. Oligosaccharides might contribute to the antidiabetic effect of honey: a review of the literature. Molecules. 2011;17:248–266.

– Erejuwa OO. Effect of honey in diabetes mellitus: matters arising. J Diabetes Metab Disord. 2014;13:23.

– Erejuwa OO. The use of honey in diabetes mellitus: is it beneficial or detrimental? Int J Endocrinol Metab. 2012;10(1):444–445.

– Erejuwa, O. O. Sulaiman, S. A. Ab Wahab, M. S . (2014). Modulation of gut microbiota in the management of metabolic disorders: the prospects and challenges. International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 15: 4158–4188.

– Escuredo O, Dobre I, Fernández-González M, Seijo MC. Contribution of botanical origin and sugar composition of honeys on the crystallization phenomenon. Food Chem. 2014;149:84–90.

– Escuredo O, Míguez M, Fernández-González M, Seijo MC. Nutritional value and antioxidant activity of honeys produced in a European Atlantic area. Food Chem. 2013;138:851–856.

– Estevinho L, Pereira AP, Moreira L G. Dias L, Pereira E. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of phenolic compounds extracts of Northeast Portugal honey. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:3774–3779.

– Eteraf-Oskouei T, Najafi M. Traditional and modern uses of natural honey in human diseases: a review. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2013;16:731–742.

– European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2013). Guidance on the risk assessment of plant protection products on bees (Apis mellifera, bombus spp. and solitary bees). Parma, Italy: EFSA.

– Ewnetu Y, Lemma W, Birhane N. Synergetic antimicrobial effects of mixtures of Ethiopian honeys and ginger powder extracts on standard and resistant clinical bacteria isolates. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014;2004;562804.

– Exodus 33, 3. The Holy Bible. Authorised King James Version. Oxford University Press, New York; 1972.

– Ezz El-Arab AM, Girgis SM, Hegazy ME, Abd El-Khalek AB. Effect of dietary honey on intestinal microflora and toxicity of mycotoxins in mice. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2006;6:1–13.

– F. C. Lau, B. Shukitt-Hale, and J. A. Joseph, “The beneficial effects of fruit polyphenols on brain aging,” Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 26, pp. S128–S132, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus

– F. Dajas, A. Rivera-Megret, F. Blasina et al., “Neuroprotection by flavonoids,” Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 1613–1620, 2003.

– F. J. E. Vajda, “Neuroprotection and neurodegenerative disease,” Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 4–8, 2002.

– F. M. Adebiyi, I. Akpan, E. I. Obiajunwa, and H. B. Olaniyi, “Chemical/physical characterization of Nigerian honey,” Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 278–281, 2004.

– F. Pu, K. Mishima, K. Irie et al., “Neuroprotective effects of quercetin and rutin on spatial memory impairment in an 8-arm radial maze task and neuronal death induced by repeated cerebral ischemia in rats,” Journal of Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 104, no. 4, pp. 329–334, 2007.

– F.-S. Tsai, H.-Y. Cheng, M.-T. Hsieh, C.-R. Wu, Y.-C. Lin, and W.-H. Peng, “The ameliorating effects of luteolin on beta-amyloid-induced impairment of water maze performance and passive avoidance in rats,” American Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 279–291, 2010.

– F.-S. Tsai, W.-H. Peng, W.-H. Wang et al., “Effects of luteolin on learning acquisition in rats: involvement of the central cholinergic system,” Life Sciences, vol. 80, no. 18, pp. 1692–1698, 2007.

– Fan  li.  Golden  rules  for  business  success. Asiapac book house Singapore, 2006.

– Farzadinia P, Jofreh N, Khatamsaz S, et al. Anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of Aloe vera, honey and milk ointment on second-degree burns in rats. Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2016;15:241–247.

– Fauzi AN, Norazmi MN, Yaacob NS. Tualang honey induces apoptosis and disrupts the mitochondrial membrane potential of human breast and cervical cancer cell lines. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49:871–878.

– Favarin, L. Laureano-Melo, R. Luchese, R. H . (2015). Survival of free and microencapsulated Bifidobacterium: effect of honey addition. Journal of Microencapsulation , 32: 329–335.

– Ferreira ICFR, Aires E, Barreira JCM, Estevinho LM. Antioxidant activity of Portuguese honey samples: different contributions of the entire honey and phenolic extract. Food Chem. 2009;114:1438–1443.

– Ferreres F, Andrade P, Gil MI, Tomás-Barberán FA. Floral nectar phenolics as biochemical markers for the botanical origin of heather honey. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch. 1996;202:40–44.

– Flamm G, Glinsmann W, Kritchevsky D, Prosky L, Roberfroid M. Inulin and oligofructose as dietary fiber: a review of the evidence. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2001;41:353–362.

– Flint, H. J. Scott, K. P. Louis, P. Duncan, S. H . (2012). The role of the gut microbiota in nutrition and health. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology , 9: 577–589.

– Ford ES, Giles WH. A comparison of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome using two proposed definitions. Diabetes Care. 2003;26:575–581.

– Fotidar M, Fotidar SN. Lotus’ honey. Indian Bee J. 1945;7:102.

– Frankel  S,  Robinson  GE,  and  Berenbaum  MR. Antioxidant  capacity  and  correlated characteristics of 14 unifloral honeys. J  Apicult Res, 1998; 37, 27–31.

– Fuller, R . (1989). Probiotics in man and animals. Journal of Applied Bacteriology , 66: 365–378.

– G. Filomeni, I. Graziani, D. de Zio et al., “Neuroprotection of kaempferol by autophagy in models of rotenone-mediated acute toxicity: possible implications for Parkinson’s disease,” Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 767–785, 2012.

– G. P. Kumar and K. Farhath, “Neuroprotective potential of phytochemicals,” Pharmacognosy Reviews, vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 81–90, 2012.

– G. Voglis and N. Tavernarakis, “The role of synaptic ion channels in synaptic plasticity,” EMBO Reports, vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 1104–1110, 2006.

– Gambacorta E, Simonetti A, Garrisi N, Intaglietta I, Perna A. Antioxidant properties and phenolic content of sulla (Hedysarum sp.)honeys from Southern Italy. Int J Food Sci Technol. 2014;49:2260–2268.

– Gannabathula S, Skinner MA, Rosendale D, et al. Arabinogalactan proteins contribute to the immunostimulatory properties of New Zealand honeys. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2012;34:598–607.

– Gao AM, Ke ZP, Shi F, Sun GC, Chen H. Chrysin enhances sensitivity of BEL-7402/ADM cells to doxorubicin by suppressing PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 and ERK/Nrf2 pathway. Chemico-Biological Interactions. 2013;206(1):100–108.

– García-Elorriaga, G. del Rey-Pineda, G . (2013). Nutrition and intestinal microflora. Journal of Nutritional Therapeutics , 2: 112–121.

– Garcia-Fernadez AJ, Garcia-Sanchez JA, Gomez-Zapata M, Luna A. Distribution of Cadmium in blood and tissues of wild birds. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1996;30(2):252–258.

– Gašić UM, Natić MM, Mišić DM, et al. Chemical markers for the authentication of unifloral Salvia officinalis L. honey. J Food Compos Anal. 2015;44:128–138.

– Ghapanchi J, Moattari A, Tadbir AA, Talatof Z, Shahidi SP, Ebrahimi H. The in vitro anti-viral activity of honey on type 1 herpes simplex virus. Aust J Basic Appl Sci. 2011;5:849–852.

– Gharekhani A, Najafi M, Ghavimi H. Acute administration of natural honey protects isolated heart in normothermic ischemia. Iran J Pharm Res. 2012;11(4):1275–1284.

– Gharzouli K, Amira S, Gharzouli A, Khennouf S. Gastro protective effects of honey and glucose-fructose-sucrose-maltose mixture against ethanol-, indomethacin-, and acidified aspirin induced lesions in the rat. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2002;54:217–221.

– Gharzouli K, Gharzouli A, Amira S, Khennouf S. Prevention of ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats by natural honey and glucose-fructose-sucrose-maltose mixture. Pharmacol Res. 2001;43:509.

– Ghashm AA, Othman NH, Khattak MN, Ismail NM, Saini R. Antiproliferative effect of tualang honey on oral squamous cell carcinoma and osteosarcoma cell lines. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2010;10:49.

– Gheldof  N,  Engeseth  NJ.  Antioxidant  capacity of  honeys  from various  floral sources  based  on the determination of oxygen radical absorbance capacity  and  inhibition  of  in  vitro  lipoprotein oxidation in human serum samples. J Agri Food Chem, 2002; 50: 3050-3055.

– Gheldof  N,  Wang  XH  and  Engeseth  N. Identification  and  quantification of  antioxidant components  of  honeys  from  various  floral sources.  J  Agri  Food  Chem, 2002;  50:  5870-5877.

– Gibson, G. R. et al.   . (2010). Dietary prebiotics: current status and new definition. The Food Science and Technology Bulletin: Functional Foods , 7, 1–19.

– Gibson, G. R. Fuller, R . (2000). Aspects of in vitro and in vivo research approaches directed toward identifying probiotics and prebiotics for human use. Journal of Nutrition , 130(2 Suppl.), 391S–395S.

– Gibson, G. R. Probert, H. M. Van Loo, J. Rastall, R. A. Roberfroid, M. B . (2004). Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: updating the concept of prebiotics. Nutrition Research Reviews , 17: 259–275.

– Gibson, G. R. Roberfroid, M. B . (1995). Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics. Journal of Nutrition , 125: 1401–1412.

– Gill, H. S. Shu, Q. Lin, H. Rutherfurd, K. J. Cross, M. L . (2001). Protection against translocating Salmonella typltimurium infection in mice by feeding the immuno-enhancing probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain HN001. Medical Microbiology and Immunology , 190: 97–104.

– Gmeiner, M. et al.   . (2000). Influence of a synbiotic mixture consisting of Lactobacillus acidophilus 74-2 and a fructooligosaccharide preparation on the microbial ecology sustained in a simulation of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (SHIME reactor). Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology , 53: 219–223.

– González-Gil EM, Santabárbara J, Russo P, et al. Food intake and inflammation in European children: the IDEFICS study. Eur J Nutr. 2016;55:2459–2468.

– González-Paramas AM, Gómez-Barex JA, García-Villanova RJ, Rivas-Pala T, Ardanuy-Albajar R, Sánchez_ Sánchez J. Geographical discrimination of honeys by using mineral composition and common chemical quality parameters. J Sci Food Agric. 2000;80:157–165.

– Grobler SR, du Toit IJ, Basson NJ. The effect of honey on human tooth enamel in vitro observed by electron microscopy and microhardness measurements. Arch Oral Biol. 1994;39:147–153.

– Guarner, F. Malagelada, J . (2003). Gut flora in health and disease. Lancet , 361: 512–519.

– Guarner, F. Schaafsma, G. J . (1998). Probiotics. International Journal of Food Microbiology , 39: 237–238.

– Guerrini A, Bruni R, Maietti S, Poli F, Rossi D, Paganetto G, et al. Ecuadorian stingless bee (Meliponinae) honey: A chemical and functional profile of an ancient health product. Food Chem. 2009;114:1413–1420.

– Guler  A,  Bakan  A,  Nisbet  C  and  Yavuz,  O. Determination  of  important  biochemical properties  of  honey  to  discriminate  pure  and adulterated  honey  with  sucrose  (Saccharum officinarum  L.)  syrup.  Food  Chem,  2007; 105: 1119–1125.

– Gurdal M, Yucebas E, Tekin A, Beysel M, Aslan R, Sengor F. Predisposing factors and treatment outcome in Fournier’s gangrene. Analysis of 28 cases. Urol Int. 2003;70:286–290.

– H. A. Alzahrani, R. Alsabehi, L. Boukraâ, F. Abdellah, Y. Bellik, and B. A. Bakhotmah, “Antibacterial and antioxidant potency of floral honeys from different botanical and geographical origins,” Molecules, vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 10540–10549, 2012.

– H. Gavin, B. Philip, and N. Philip, “Appoptosis, necrosis and much more—is oxidative stress gattings in your nerves?” Australian Biochemists, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 16–20.

– H. J. Heo, D.-O. Kim, S. C. Shin, M. J. Kim, B. G. Kim, and D.-H. Shin, “Effect of antioxidant flavanone, naringenin, from Citrus junoson neuroprotection,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 1520–1525, 2004.

– Hadagali MD, Chua LS. The anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties of honey. Eur Food Res Technol. 2014;239:1003–1014.

– Haddadin, M. S. Y. Haddadin, J. Benguiar, R . (2012). The effect of royal jelly on growth and short-chain fatty acid production of probiotic bacteria and activity of bacterial procarcinogenic enzymes in rat faeces. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences , 62: 251–258.

– Haddadin, M. S. Y. Nazer, I. Raddad, J. A. Robinson, R. K . (2007). Effect of honey on the growth and metabolism of two bacterial species of intestinal origin. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 6: 693–697.

– Haddadin, M. S. Y. Nazer, I. Raddad, S. J. A. Robinson, R. K . (2008). Effect of propolis on two bacterial species with probiotic potential. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 7: 391–394.

– Haffejee IE, Moosa A. Honey in the treatment of infantile gastroenteritis. Br Med J. 1985;290:1866– 1867.

– Haitang, Z. Yanrong, W. Ziliang, W . (2011). Comparative experiment on the effects of Chinese herb, probiotic and antibiotics on growth performance and immune function in growing pigs. China Feed , 15: 010.

– Halstead FD, Webber MA, Rauf M, Burt R, Dryden M, Oppenheim BA. In vitro activity of an engineered honey, medical-grade honeys, and antimicrobial wound dressings against biofilm-producing clinical bacterial isolates. J Wound Care. 2016;25:93–94.

– Hashemipour MA, Tavakolineghad Z, Arabzadeh SA, Iranmanesh Z, Nassab SA. Antiviral activities of honey, royal jelly, and acyclovir against HSV-1. Wounds. 2014;26:47–54.

– Hegazi AG, Abd El-Hady FK. Influence of honey on the suppression of human low density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation (in vitro) Evid Based BMC Complement Altern Med. 2009;6:113–121.

– Hejase MJ, Bihrle R, Coogan CL. Genital Foumier’s gangrene: experience with 38 patients. Urology. 1996;47(5):734–739.

– Henriques A, Jackson S, Cooper R, Burton N. Free radical production and quenching in honeys with wound healing potential. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2006;58:773–777.

– Heppermann B. Towards evidence based emergency medicine: Best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. Bet 3. Honey for the symptomatic relief of cough in children with upper respiratory tract infections. Emerg Med J. 2009;26(7):522–523.

– Herman RH, Zakim D. Fructose Metabolism 1. The Fructose Metabolic Pathway. Am J Clin Nutr. 1968;21(3):245–249.

– Hill, C. et al.   . (2014). Expert consensus document: The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and prebiotics consensus statement on the scope and appropriate use of the term probiotic. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology , 11: 506–514.

– Høiby N, Ciofu O, Johansen HK, et al. The clinical impact of bacterial biofilms. Int J Oral Sci. 2011;3:55–65.

– Hong, H. A. Le, H. D. Cutting, S. M . (2005). The use of bacterial spore formers as probiotics. FEMS Microbiology Reviews , 29: 813–835.

– Hume JR, Grant AO. Agents used in cardiac arrhythmias. In: Katzung BG, editor. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. 10th ed. San Francisco: The McGraw-Hill companies; 2007. pp. 211–216.

– Hussein SZ, Mohd Yusoff K, Makpol S, Mohd Yusof YA. Gelam honey inhibits the production of proinflammatory, mediators NO, PGE2, TNF-α and IL-6 in carrageenan-induced acute Paw edema in rats. Evid Based Compl Altern Med. 2012;2012:13.

– I. Mato, J. F. Huidobro, J. Simal-Lozano, and M. T. Sancho, “Significance of nonaromatic organic acids in honey,” Journal of Food Protection, vol. 66, no. 12, pp. 2371–2376, 2003.

– I. R. Siddiqui and B. Furgala, “Isolation and characterization of oligosaccharides (Disacharides) from honey,” Journal of Apicultural Research, vol. 6, pp. 139–145, 1967.

– I. R. Siddiqui and B. Furgala, “Isolation and characterization of oligosaccharides (Trisacharides) from honey,” Journal of Apicultural Research, vol. 7, pp. 51–59, 1968.

– I. R. Siddiqui, “The sugars of honey,” Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry, vol. 25, pp. 285–309, 1971.

– Imperato PJ, Traore A. Traditional beliefs about measles and its treatment among the Bambara of Mali. Trop Geog Med. 1969;21(1):62–67.

– Israili ZH. Antimicrobial properties of honey. Am J Ther. 2014;21(4):304–323.

– J. Anwar, R. M. Spanevello, G. Thomé et al., “Effects of caffeic acid on behavioral parameters and on the activity of acetylcholinesterase in different tissues from adult rats,” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, vol. 103, no. 2, pp. 386–394, 2012.

– J. C. Ballenger, “Current treatments of the anxiety disorders in adults,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 1579–1594, 1999.

– J. C. Patel, E. Rossignol, M. E. Rice, and R. P. Machold, “Opposing regulation of dopaminergic activity and exploratory motor behavior by forebrain and brainstem cholinergic circuits,” Nature Communications, vol. 3, article 1172, 2012.

– J. D. Sweatt, “Toward a molecular explanation for long-term potentiation,” Learning and Memory, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 399–416, 1999.

– J. Richard, “Honey and healing through the ages,” Journal of ApiProduct and ApiMedical Science, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 2–5, 2009.

– J. Wang, L. Ho, Z. Zhao et al., “Moderate consumption of Cabernet Sauvignon attenuates Aβ neuropathology in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 20, no. 13, pp. 2313–2320, 2006.

– J. Y. Ban, H. T. T. Nguyen, H.-J. Lee et al., “Neuroprotective properties of gallic acid from Sanguisorbae radix on amyloid β protein (25–35)-induced toxicity in cultured rat cortical neurons,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 149–153, 2008.

– J. Y. Han, S. Y. Ahn, C. S. Kim et al., “Protection of apigenin against kainate-induced excitotoxicity by anti-oxidative effects,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 1440–1446, 2012.

– J.-Q. Yang, Q.-X. Zhou, B.-Z. Liu, and B.-C. He, “Protection of mouse brain from aluminum-induced damage by caffeic acid,” CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 10–16, 2008.

– Jaganathan SK, Arunpandian B, Vellayappan MV, et al. A review on antiproliferative and apoptotic activities of natural honey. Anticancer Agent Med Chem. 2015;15:48–56.

– Jagdish T, Joseph I. Quantification of saccharides in multiple floral honeys using fourier transform infrared microattenuated total reflectance spectroscopy. J Agri Food Chem. 2004;52:3237–3243.

– Jakesevic, M. Aaby, K. Borge, G. A. Jeppsson, B. Ahrné, S. Molin, G . (2011). Antioxidative protection of dietary bilberry, chokeberry and Lactobacillus plantarum HEAL19 in mice subjected to intestinal oxidative stress by ischemia-reperfusion. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 11: 1.

– James OO, Mesubi  MA,  Usman LA, Yeye SO and Ajanaku  KO.  Physical  characteristics  of  some honey samples from North-Central Nigeria. Int J Phys Sci; 2009, 4: 464 -470.

– Jan Mei, S. Mohd Nordin, M. S. Norrakiah, A. S . (2010). Fructooligosaccharides in honey and effects of honey on growth of Bifidobacterium longum BB 536. International Food Research Journal , 17: 557–561.

– Jayasinghe DM. Diva Osu – Diva Bojun. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Seetha Press; 1976. pp. 66–73.

– Jeffrey  AE,  Echazarreta  CM.  Medical  uses  of honey. Revista Biomedica, 1996; 7: 43–49.

– Jeon M, Zhao Y. Honey in combination with vacuum impregnation to prevent enzymatic browning of fresh-cut apples. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2005;56:165–176.

– Jerković I, Kranjac M, Marijanović Z, et al. Screening of Satureja subspicata Vis. honey by HPLC-DAD, GC-FID/MS and UV/Vis: prephenate derivatives as biomarkers. Molecules. 2016;21:377.

– Johnson DW, Eps CV, Mudge DW, Joan Wiggins K, Armstrong K, Hawley CM, et al. Randomized, controlled trial of topical exit-site application of honey versus mupirocin for the prevention of catheter-associated infections in hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephr. 2005;16:1456–1462.

– Johnson RJ, Segal MS, Sautin Y, Nakagawa T, Feig DI, Kang D, Gersch MS, Benner S, Sa’nchez-Lozada LG. Potential role of sugar (fructose) in the epidemic of hypertension, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86(4):899–906.

– Johnston JE, Sepe HA, Miano CL, Brannan RG, Alderton AL. Honey inhibits lipid oxidation in ready-to-eat ground beef patties. Meat Sci. 2005;70:627–631.

– Jones R. In: Honey and healing. Munn P, Jones R, editor. International Bee Research Association IBRA, Cardiff; 2001. Honey and healing through the ages.

– Judges 14, 8. The Holy Bible. Authorised King James Version. Oxford University Press, New York; 1972.

– Jull A, Walker N, Parag V, Molan P, Rodgers A. Randomized clinical trial of honey-impregnated dressings for venous leg ulcers. Br J Surg. 2008;95:175–182.

– Jull AB, Cullum N, Dumville JC, Westby MJ, Deshpande S, Walker N. Honey as a topical treatment for wounds. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;3:CD005083.

– K. Petrus, H. Schwartz, and G. Sontag, “Analysis of flavonoids in honey by HPLC coupled with coulometric electrode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry,” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol. 400, no. 8, pp. 2555–2563, 2011.

– K. Rezai-Zadeh, J. Ehrhart, Y. Bai et al., “Apigenin and luteolin modulate microglial activation via inhibition of STAT1-induced CD40 expression,” Journal of Neuroinflammation, vol. 5, article 41, 2008.

– K. Unno, F. Takabayashi, H. Yoshida et al., “Daily consumption of green tea catechin delays memory regression in aged mice,” Biogerontology, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 89–95, 2007.

– Kadir EA, Sulaiman SA, Yahya NK, Othman NH. Inhibitory effects of tualang honey on experimental breast cancer in rats: a preliminary study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14:2249–2254.

– Kailasapathy, K. Harmstorf, I. Phillips, M . (2008). Survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis in stirred fruit yogurts. LWT–Food Science and Technology , 41: 1317–1322.

– Kajiwara S, Gandhi H, Ustunol Z. Effect of honey on the growth of and acid production by human intestinal Bifidobacterium spp An in vitro comparison with commercial oligosaccharides and inulin. J Food Prot. 2002;65:214–218.

– Kandil A, El-Banby M, Abdel-Wahed K, Abdel-Gawwad M, Fayez M. Curative properties of true floral and false non floral honeys and induced gastric ulcers. J Drug Res Egypt. 1987;17:103–106.

– Karabagias IK, Dimitriou E, Kontakos S, Kontominas MG. Phenolic profile, colour intensity, and radical scavenging activity of Greek unifloral honeys. Eur Food Res Technol. 2016;242:1201–1210.

– Karabagias IK, Vavoura MV, Badeka A, Kontakos S, Kontominas MG. Differentiation of Greek thyme honeys according to geographical origin based on the combination of phenolic compounds and conventional quality parameters using chemometrics. Food Anal Methods. 2014;7:2113–2121.

– Kaškoniene, V. Venskutonis, P. R . (2010). Floral markers in honey of various botanical and geographic origins: a review. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety , 9: 620–634.

– Kassim M, Mansor M, Al-Abd N, Yusoff KM. Gelam honey has a protective effect against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced organ failure. Int J Mol Sci. 2012;13:6370–6381.

– Kateel R, Adhikari P, Augustine AJ, Ullal S. Topical honey for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer: a systematic review. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2016;24:130–133.

– Kearney PM, Whelton M, Reynolds K, Muntner P, Whelton PK, He J. Global burden of hypertension: analysis of worldwide data. Lancet. 2005;365:217–223.

– Keenan JI, Salm N, Wallace AJ, Hampton MB. Using food to reduce H. pylori-associated inflammation. Phytother Res. 2012;26:1620–1625.

– Kellow, N. J. Coughlan, M. T. Reid, C. M . (2014). Metabolic benefits of dietary prebiotics in human subjects: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. British Journal of Nutrition , 111: 1147–1161.

– Khalil MI, Sulaiman SA. The potential role of honey and its polyphenols in preventing heart diseases: a review. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med . 2010;7:315–321.

– Khan FR, Ul Abadin Z, Rauf N. Honey: nutritional and medicinal value. Inte J Clin Pract. 2007;61:1705–1707.

– Khoder, G. Al-Menhali, A. A. Al-Yassir, F. Karam, S. M . (2016). Potential role of probiotics in the management of gastric ulcer. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine , 12: 3–17.

– Khoo Y-T, Halim AS, Singh K-KB, Mohamad N-A. Wound contraction effects and antibacterial properties of Tualang honey on full-thickness burn wounds in rats in comparison to hydrofibre. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2010;10:48.

– Khotkina ML. Honey as part of therapy for patients with stomach ulcers. Collect papers Irkutsk State Med Inst. 1955. pp. 252–262.

– Kilicoglu B, Gencay C, Kismet K, Kilicoglu S, Erguder I, Erel S, et al. The ultrastructural research of liver in experimental obstructive jaundice and effect of honey. Am J Surg. 2008;195(2):249–256.

– Kilicoglu B, Kismet K, Koru O, Tanyuksel M, Oruc MT, Sorkun K, Akkus MA. The scolicidal effects of honey. Adv Ther. 2006;23:1077–1083.

– Kim TH, Ku SK, Lee IC, Bae JS. Anti-inflammatory effects of kaempferol-3-O-sophoroside in human endothelial cells. Inflamm Res. 2012;61:217–224.

– Kolayli S, Sahin H, Can Z, Yildiz O, Sahin K. Honey shows potent inhibitory activity against the bovine testes hyaluronidase. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2016;31:599–602.

– Kolida, S. Tuohy, K. Gibson, G. R . (2002). Prebiotic effects of inulin and oligofructose. British Journal of Nutrition , 87(SUPPL. 2), S193–S197.

– Korkmaz A, Kolankaya D. Anzer honey prevents N-ethyl maleimide-induced liver damage in rats. Exptal Toxicol Pathol. 2009;61:333–337.

– Krauze, A. Zalewski, R. I . (1991). Classification of honeys by principal component analysis on the basis of chemical and physical parameters. Zeitschrift Für Lebensmittel-Untersuchung Und-Forschung , 192: 19–23.

– Kreider RB, Rasmussen CJ, Lancaster SL, Kerksick C, Greenwood M. Honey: An alternative sports gel. Strength Conditioning J. 2002;24:50–51.

– Küçük M, Kolayl S, Karaoğlu Ş, Ulusoy E, Baltacı C, Candan F. Biological activities and chemical composition of three honeys of different types from Anatolia. Food Chem. 2007;100:526–534.

– Kumar, H. et al.   . (2015). Novel probiotics and prebiotics: road to the market. Current Opinion in Biotechnology , 32, 99–103.

– Kumazaki M, Shinohara H, Taniguchi K, Yamada N, Ohta S, Ichihara K, et al. Propolis cinnamic acid derivatives induce apoptosis through both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis signaling pathways and modulate of miRNA expression. Phytomedicine. 2014;21(8–9):1070–1077.

– Kús PM, Jerković I, Tuberoso CIG, Marijanović Z, Congiu F. Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus L.) honey quality parameters: chromatographic fingerprints, chemical biomarkers, antioxidant capacity and others. Food Chem. 2014;142:12–18.

– Kwakman, P. H. S. Zaat, S. A. J . (2012). Antibacterial components of honey. IUBMB Life , 64: 48–55.

– L. D. Mercer, B. L. Kelly, M. K. Horne, and P. M. Beart, “Dietary polyphenols protect dopamine neurons from oxidative insults and apoptosis: investigations in primary rat mesencephalic cultures,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 339–345, 2005.

– L. M. Chepulis, N. J. Starkey, J. R. Waas, and P. C. Molan, “The effects of long-term honey, sucrose or sugar-free diets on memory and anxiety in rats,” Physiology and Behavior, vol. 97, no. 3-4, pp. 359–368, 2009.

– L. R. Ferguson, S.-T. Zhu, and P. J. Harris, “Antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of plant cell wall hydroxycinnamic acids in cultured HT-29 cells,” Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 585–593, 2005.

– L. Shu-Qin, S. Fang, F. Lu-Mei, X. Qiang, and Z. Xiong, “Protective effect of apigenin on neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion induced injury,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 604, 2010.

– L. Vorlova and A. Pridal, “Invertase and diastase activity in honeys of Czech provenience,” Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Sbornik Mendelovy Zemedelske a Lesnicke Mendelianae Brunensis, no. 5, pp. 57–66, 2002.

– L. W. Doner, “The sugars of honey—a review,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 443–456, 1977.

– Lachman J, Kolihová D, Miholová D, Košata J, Titěra D, Kult K. Analysis of minority honey components: Possible use for the evaluation of honey quality. Food Chem. 2007;101:973–979.

– Ladas SD, Haritos DN, Raptis SA. Honey may have a laxative effect on normal subjects because of incomplete fructose absorption. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;62:1212–1215.

– Ladas SD, Raptis SA. Honey, fructose absorption, and the laxative effect. Nutrition. 1999;15:591–592.

– Larry  Gonick.  The  Cartoon  History  of  the Universe Vol.2.

– Larson-Meyer DE, et al. (2010). Effect of honey versus sucrose on appetite, appetite-regulating hormones, and postmeal thermogenesis. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 29:482-93.

– Lazaridou  A, Biliaderis  CG, Bacandritsos  N  and Sabatini  AG.    Composition,  thermal  and rheological behavior of  selected Greek Honeys. J Food Eng, 2004; 64: 9-21.

– Lee DC, Lee SY, Cha SH, Choi YS, Rhee HI. Discrimination of native bee-honey and foreign bee-honey by SDS–PAGE. Korean J Food Sci. 1998;30:1–5.

– Lee JH, Park JH, Kim JA, et al. Low concentrations of honey reduce biofilm formation, quorum sensing, and virulence in Escherichia coli O157:H7. Biofouling. 2011;27:1095–1104.

– Lee, K. Lee, H. Choi, Y . (2008). Proteomic analysis of the effect of bile salts on the intestinal and probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri . Journal of Biotechnology , 137(1–4), 14–19.

– Lirdprapamongkol K, Sakurai H, Abdelhamed S, Yokoyama S, Maruyama T, Athikomkulchai S, et al. A flavonoid chrysin suppresses hypoxic survival and metastatic growth of mouse breast cancer cells. Oncol Rep. 2013;30(5):2357–2364.

– López-Nicolás, R. González-Bermúdez, C. A. Ros-Berruezo, G. Frontela-Saseta, C . (2014). Influence of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of fruit juices enriched with pine bark extract on intestinal microflora. Food Chemistry , 157, 14–19.

– Lu J, Carter DA, Turnbull L, et al. The effect of New Zealand kanuka, manuka and clover honeys on bacterial growth dynamics and cellular morphology varies according to the species. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55898.

– Lu, G . (2007). A novel approach for controlling foodborne pathogens using modified atmosphere and Lactobacillus reuteri DPC16   (Doctoral dissertation), Massey University, NZ.

– Lucan M, Slacanac V, Hardi J, et al. Inhibitory effect of honey-sweetened goat and cow milk fermented with Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes. Mljekarstvo. 2009;59:96–106.

– Lusby PE, Coombes A, Wilkinson JM. Honey: a potent agent for wound healing? J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2002;29:295–300.

– M. A. Akanmu, C. Echeverry, F. Rivera, and F. Dajas, “Antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of Nigerian honey,” in Proceedings of the Nueroscience Meeting Planner, Washington, DC, USA, 2009.

– M. A. Akanmu, T. A. Olowookere, S. A. Atunwa et al., “Neuropharmacological effects of Nigerian honey in mice,” African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 230–249, 2011.

– M. A. Cantarelli, R. G. Pellerano, E. J. Marchevsky, and J. M. Camiña, “Quality of honey from Argentina: study of chemical composition and trace elements,” Journal of the Argentine Chemical Society, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 33–41, 2008.

– M. B. Khan, M. M. Khan, A. Khan et al., “Naringenin ameliorates Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-type neurodegeneration with cognitive impairment (AD-TNDCI) caused by the intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin in rat model,” Neurochemistry International, vol. 61, no. 7, pp. 1081–1093, 2012.

– M. Cai, B. Y. Shin, D. H. Kim et al., “Neuroprotective effects of a traditional herbal prescription on transient cerebral global ischemia in gerbils,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 138, no. 3, pp. 723–730, 2011.

– M. D. dos Santos, M. C. Almeida, N. P. Lopes, and G. E. P. de Souza, “Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of the natural polyphenol chlorogenic acid,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 2236–2240, 2006.

– M. F. Molina-Jiménez, M. I. Sánchez-Reus, D. Andres, M. Cascales, and J. Benedi, “Neuroprotective effect of fraxetin and myricetin against rotenone-induced apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells,” Brain Research, vol. 1009, no. 1-2, pp. 9–16, 2004.

– M. H. Abdel-Wahab, M. A. El-Mahdy, M. F. Abd-Ellah, G. K. Helal, F. Khalifa, and F. M. A. Hamada, “Influence of p-coumaric acid on doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress in rat’s heart,” Pharmacological Research, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 461–465, 2003.

– M. I. Khalil, M. Moniruzzaman, L. Boukraâ et al., “Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Algerian honey,” Molecules, vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 11199–11215, 2012.

– M. I. Khalil, N. Alam, M. Moniruzzaman, S. A. Sulaiman, and S. H. Gan, “Phenolic acid composition and antioxidant properties of Malaysian honeys,” Journal of Food Science, vol. 76, no. 6, pp. C921–C928, 2011.

– M. J. Carson, J. C. Thrash, and B. Walter, “The cellular response in neuroinflammation: the role of leukocytes, microglia and astrocytes in neuronal death and survival,” Clinical Neuroscience Research, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 237–245, 2006.

– M. J. Kim, S. J. Choi, S.-T. Lim et al., “Ferulic acid supplementation prevents trimethyltin-induced cognitive deficits in mice,” Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 1063–1068, 2007.

– M. Mandal and S. K. Jaganathan, “Antiproliferative effects of honey and of its polyphenols: a review,” Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, vol. 2009, Article ID 830616, 13 pages, 2009.

– M. P. G. Barra, M. C. Ponce-Díaz, and C. Venegas-Gallegos, “Volatile compounds in honey produced in the central valley of Ñuble province, Chile,” Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 75–84, 2010.

– M. P. Mattson, T. G. Son, and S. Camandola, “Viewpoint: mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential of neurohormetic phytochemicals,” Dose Response, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 174–186, 2007.

– M. R. Lamprea, F. P. Cardenas, R. Silveira, T. J. Walsh, and S. Morato, “Effects of septal cholinergic lesion on rat exploratory behavior in an open-field,” Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 233–238, 2003.

– M. Repici, J. Mariani, and T. Borsello, “Neuronal death and neuroprotection: a review,” Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 399, pp. 1–14, 2007.

– M. T. Iglesias, C. de Lorenzo, M. D. C. Polo, P. J. Martín-Álvarez, and E. Pueyo, “Usefulness of amino acid composition to discriminate between honeydew and floral honeys. Application to honeys from a small geographic area,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 84–89, 2004.

– M. T. Mansouri, Y. Farbood, M. J. Sameri, A. Sarkaki, and B. Naghizadeh, “Neuroprotective effects of oral gallic acid against oxidative stress induced by 6-hydroxydopamine in rats,” Food Chemistry, vol. 138, no. 2-3, pp. 1028–1033, 2013.

– M. W. Swank and J. D. Sweatt, “Increased histone acetyltransferase and lysine acetyltransferase activity and biphasic activation of the ERK/RSK cascade in insular cortex during novel taste learning,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 3383–3391, 2001.

– Mabrouk GM, Moselhy SS, Zohny SF, et al. Inhibition of methylnitrosourea (MNU) induced oxidative stress and carcinogenesis by orally administered bee honey and Nigella grains in Sprague Dawely rats. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2002;21:341–346.

– Macedo LN, Luchese RH, Guerra AF, Barbosa CG. Prebiotic effect of honey on growth and viability of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. in milk. Cienc Tecnol Aliment. 2008;28:935–942.

– MacEwan DJ. TNF ligands and receptors – a matter of life and death. Brit J Pharmacol. 2002;135:855–875.

– Macfarlane GT, Steed H, Macfarlane S. Bacterial metabolism and health-related effects of galacto-oligosaccharides and other prebiotics. J Appl Microbiol. 2008;104:305–344.

– Maeda Y, Loughrey A, Earle JAF, Millar BC, Rao J, Kearns A, et al. Antibacterial activity of honey against community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2008;14:77–82.

– Mahawar MM, Jaroli DP. Animals and their products utilized as medicines by the inhabitants surrounding the Ranthambhore National Park, India. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2006;2:46.

– Majtan J, Kumar P, Majtan T, Walls AF, Klaudiny J. Effect of honey and its major royal jelly protein 1 on cytokine and MMP-9 mRNA transcripts in human keratinocytes. Exp Dermatol. 2010;19:e73–e79.

– Majtan J. Honey: an immunomodulator in wound healing. Wound Repair Regen. 2014;22:187–192.

– Makpol S, Ahmad TAFT, Jubri Z, Rajab NF, Yusof N, Yusof YAM. Gelam honey acting as a radioprotectant agent in gamma-irradiated human diploid fibroblasts. J Med Plants Res. 2012;6.

– Manhar, A. K. et al.   . (2016). Assessment of goat milk-derived potential probiotic L. lactis AMD17 and its application for preparation of dahi using honey. Annals of Microbiology , 1–12.

– Manyi-Loh CE, Ndip RN, Clarke AM. Volatile compounds in honey: a review on their involvement in aroma botanical origin determination and potential biomedical activities. Int J Mol Sci. 2011;12:9514–9532.

– Marchesi, J. R. et al.   . (2016). The gut microbiota and host health: a new clinical frontier. Gut , 65: 330–339.

– Markelov VV, Trushin MV. Bee venom therapy and low dose naltrexone for treatment of multiple sclerosis. Nepal J Neurosci . 2006;3:71–77.

– Martos  I,  Ferreres  F  and  Tom  As-Barber. Identification  of  flavonoid  markers  for  the botanical  origin  of  Eucalyptus honey.  J  Agri Food Chem, 2000; 48: 1498–502.

– Martos I, Cossentini M, Ferreres F, Tomás-Barberán FA. Flavonoid composition of Tunisian honeys and propolis. J Agric Food Chem. 1997;45:2824–2829.

– Mathew 3, 4. The Holy Bible. Authorised King James Version. Oxford University Press, New York; 1972.

– Mattila-Sandholm, T. Myllärinen, P. Crittenden, R. Mogensen, G. Fondén, R. Saarela, M . (2002). Technological challenges for future probiotic foods. International Dairy Journal , 12(2–3), 173–182.

– McCance RA & Widdowson EM (2010). The composition of foods (pp. 334-335) 6th Ed. Cambridge, England: Food Standards Agency.

– McKee B. Prevention of residues in honey: A future perspective. Apiacta. 2003;38:173–177.

– McLoone P, Warnock M, Fyfe L. Honey: an immunomodulatory agent for disorders of the skin. Food Agric Immunol. 2016;27:338–349.

– Meda A, Lamien EC, Millogo J, Romito M, Nacoulma OG. Ethnopharmacological communication therapeutic uses of honey and honeybee larvae in central Burkina Faso. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;95:103–107.

– Medhi B, Puri A, Upadhyay S, Kaman L. Topical application of honey in the treatment of wound healing: a meta analysis. JK Sci . 2008;10:166–169.

– Meier KE, Freitag G. Ober die andbiodschen Eigenschaften von Sacchariden und Bienenhonig. Z Hyg Infekt. 1955;141:326–332.

– Menshikov FK, Feidman SI. Curing stomach ulcers with honey. Sovetskaya Meditsing. 1949;10:13–14.

– Metchnikoff, E . (1908). The prolongation of life  . New York, London: G.P. Putnam’s Sons.

– Michaluart P, Masferrer JL, Carothers AM, Subbaramaiah K, Zweifel BS, Koboldt C. Inhibitory effects of caffeic acid, phenethyl ester on the activity and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in human oral epithelial cells and in a rat model of inflammation. Cancer Res. 1999;59(10):2347–2352.

– Miguel MG, Antunes MD, Aazza S, Duarte J, Faleiro ML. Honey-based ‘água-mel’ chemical characterization and microbiological quality. Ital J Food Sci. 2013;25:275–282.

– Mohapatra DP, Thakur V, Brar SK. Antibacterial efficacy of raw and processed honey. Biotech Res Int. 2011:2011;6.

– Molan P. Brief review of honey as a clinical dressing. Aust J Wound Manage. 1998;6:148–158.

– Molan P. The role of honey in the management of wounds. J Wound Care. 1999;8:415–418.

– Molan P. Why honey is effective as a medicine. 1. Its use in modern medicine. Bee World. 1999;80:79–92.

– Molan P. Why honey is effective as a medicine. 2. The scientific explanation of its effects. Bee World. 2001;82:22–40.

– Molan PC, Allen KL. The effect of gamma irradiation on the antibacterial activity of honey. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1996;48:1206–1209.

– Molan PC, Brett M. Honey has potential as a dressing for wounds infected with MRSA. The second Australian wound management association conference. Australia: Brisbane; 1998.

– Molan PC. A brief review of the use of honey as a clinical dressing. Primary Intention. 1998;6:148–158.

– Molan PC. Not all honeys are the same for wound healing. Eur Tissue Repair Soc Bull. 2002;9:5–6.

– Molan PC. The antibacterial activity of honey. 2—Variation in the potency of the antibacterial activity. Bee World. 1992;73:59–75.

– Molan PC. The potential of honey to promote oral wellness. Gen Dent . 2001;49:584–589.

– Molan, P. C. Russell, K. M . (1988). Non-peroxide antibacterial activity in some New Zealand honeys. Journal of Apicultural Research , 27: 62–67.

– Montiel, R. et al.   . (2014). Antimicrobial activity of reuterin produced by Lactobacillus reuteri on Listeria monocytogenes in cold-smoked salmon. Food Microbiology , 44, 1–5.

– Morales P, Haza AI. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of Spanish honeys. Pharmacogn Mag. 2013;9:231–237.

– Motallebnejad M, Akram S, Moghadamnia A, Moulana Z, Omodi S. The effect of topical application of pure honey on radiation-induced mucositis: A randomized clinical trial. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2008;9:1–9.

– Moundoi MA, Padila-Zakour OI, Worobo RW. Antimicrobial activity of honey against food pathogens and food spoilage microorganisms. NYSAES. 2001;1:61–71.

– Mozherenkov VP. Prokof’eva: Honey treatment of poscherpetic opacities of the cornea. Oftarmologicheski Zhurna. 1984;3:188–Oftarmologicheski Zhurna. (in Russian). Citation from [16]

– Munstedt K, Hoffmann S, Hauenschild A, Bulte M, von-Georgi R, Hackethal A. Effect of honey on serum cholesterol and lipid values. J Med Food. 2009;12(3):624–628.

– Mussatto, S. I. Mancilha, I. M . (2007). Non-digestible oligosaccharides: a review. Carbohydrate Polymers , 68: 587–597.

– N. A. Kelsey, H. M. Wilkins, and D. A. Linseman, “Nutraceutical antioxidants as novel neuroprotective agents,” Molecules, vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 7792–7814, 2010.

– N. Braidy, R. Grant, S. Adams, and G. J. Guillemin, “Neuroprotective effects of naturally occurring polyphenols on quinolinic acid-induced excitotoxicity in human neurons,” FEBS Journal, vol. 277, no. 2, pp. 368–382, 2010.

– N. Helmy and A. El-Soud, “Honey between traditional uses and recent medicine,” Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 205–214, 2012.

– N. P. Seeram, L. S. Adams, S. M. Henning et al., “In vitro antiproliferative, apoptotic and antioxidant activities of punicalagin, ellagic acid and a total pomegranate tannin extract are enhanced in combination with other polyphenols as found in pomegranate juice,” The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 360–367, 2005.

– N. Zárraga-Galindo, P. Vergara-Aragón, S. Rosales-Meléndez et al., “Effects of bee products on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in the rat,” Proceedings of the Western Pharmacological Society, vol. 54, pp. 32–39, 2011.

– Nagpal R, Kaur A. Symbiotic effect of various prebiotics on in vitro activities of prebiotic lactobacilli. Ecol Food Nutr. 2011;50:63–68.

– Najafi M, Eteraf-Oskouei T, Rafie F, Mahdizadeh-Aghdam E. Effects of pharmacologic preconditioning by natural honey on arrhythmias and infarct size in isolated heart. Pharm Sci J. 2008;4:1–11.

– Najafi M, Shaseb E, Ghaffary S, Fakhrju A, Eteraf-Oskouei T. Effects of chronic oral administration of natural honey on ischemia/reperfusion-induced arrhythmias in isolated rat heart. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2011;14:75–81.

– Nanda  V, Sarkar  BC,  Sharma  HK  and  Bawa  AS. Physic-chemical  properties  and  estimation  of mineral  content  in  honey  produced  from different plants in northern India. J Food Comp Anal, 2003; 16(5): 613-619.

– Narayanan, R. Subramonian, B. S . (2015). Effect of prebiotics on bifidobacterial species isolated from infant faeces. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge , 14: 285–289.

– Nasuti C, Gabbianelli R, Falcioni G, Cantalamessa F. Antioxidative and gastro protective activities of anti-inflammatory formulations derived from chestnut honey in rats. Nutr Res. 2006;26:130–137.

– Natarajan S, Williamson D, Grey J, Harding KG, Cooper RA. Healing of an MRSA-colonized, hydroxyurea-induced leg ulcer with honey. J Dermatolog Treat . 2001;12:33–36.

– National  Honey  Board.  Honey:  Health  and Therapeutic  Qualities.  National  Honey  Board; 2003 Longman.

– Ni N, Li M, Wang J, Wang B. Inhibitors and antagonists of bacterial quorum sensing. Med Res Rev. 2009;29:65–124.

– Nishio EK, Ribeiro JM, Oliveira AG, et al. Antibacterial synergic effect of honey from two stingless bees: Scaptotrigona bipunctata Lepeletier, 1836, and S. postica Latreille, 1807. Sci Rep. 2016;6:21641.

– Nooh HZ, Nour-Eldien NM. The dual anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of natural honey promote cell proliferation and neural regeneration in a rat model of colitis. Acta Histochem. 2016;118:588–595.

– O. A. Oyekunle, M. A. Akanmu, and T. P. Ogundeji, “Evaluation of anxiolytic and novelty induced behaviours following bee-honey consumption in rats,” Journal of Neuroscience and Behavioural Health, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 38–43, 2010.

– O. H. Oyefuga, E. O. Ajani, B. A. Salau, F. Agboola, and O. O. Adebawo, “Honey consumption and its anti-ageing potency in white Wister albino rats,” Scholarly Journal of Biological Science, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 15–19, 2012.

– O. O. Erejuwa, S. A. Sulaiman, and M. S. Ab Wahab, “Honey: a novel antioxidant,” Molecules, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 4400–4423, 2012.

– Obaseiki-Ebor EE, Afonya TCA. In vitro evaluation of the anticandidiasis activity of honey distillate (HY-1) compared with that of some antimycotic agents. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1984;36:283–284.

– Obi CL, Ugoji EO, Edun SA, Lawal SF, Anyiwo CE. The antibacterial effect of honey on diarrhoea causing bacterial agents isolated in Lagos, Nigeria. Afr J Med Sci. 1994;23:257–260.

– Olaitan PB, Adeleke EO, Ola OI. Honey: a reservoir for microorganisms and an inhibitory agent for microbes. Afr Health Sci. 2007;7:159–165.

– Oldroyd  BP, Wongsiri  and  Siriwat.  Asian  honey bees:  biology,  conservation,  and  human interactions.  Harvard  University  Press;  2006, pp. 224.

– Oroian M, Amariri S, Rosu A, Gutt G. Classification of unifloral honey using multivariate analysis. J Essent Oil Res. 2015;27:533–544.

– Oršolić N, Terzić S, Šver L, Bašić I. Honey-bee products in prevention and/or therapy of murine transplantable tumours. J Sci Food Agric. 2005;85:363–370.

– Oryan A, Alemzadeh E, Moshiri A. Biological properties and therapeutic activities of honey in wound healing: a narrative review and meta-analysis. J Tissue Viability. 2016;25:98–118.

– Oryan A, Zaker R. Effects of topical application of honey on cutaneous wound healing in rabbits. Zentralb Veterinarmed A. 1998;45:181–188.

– Osato MS, Reddy SG, Graham DY. Osmotic effect of honey on growth and viability of Helicobacter pylori. Dig Dis Sci. 1999;44:462–464.

– Osés SM, Pascual-Maté A, Fernández-Muiño MA, Lopez-Díaz TM, Sancho MT. Bioactive properties of honey with propolis. Food Chem. 2016;196:1215–1223.

– Osuagwu FC, Oladejo OW, Imosemi IO, et al. Enhanced wound contraction in fresh wounds dressed with honey in wistar rats (Rattus novergicus). West Afr J Med. 2004;23:114–118.

– Othman NH. Honey and cancer: Sustainable inverse relationship particularly for developing nations: A review. Evid Based Compl Altern Med. 2012;2012:10.

– P. B. Olaitan, O. E. Adeleke, and I. O. Ola, “Honey: a reservoir for microorganisms and an inhibitory agent for microbes,” African Health Sciences, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 159–165, 2007.

– P. Hu, M. Wang, W.-H. Chen et al., “Quercetin relieves chronic lead exposure-induced impairment of synaptic plasticity in rat dentate gyrus in vivo,” Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Archives of Pharmacology, vol. 378, no. 1, pp. 43–51, 2008.

– P. Soo-Hyun, S. Yun-Beom, H. Pyung-Lim, L. Jin-Koo, and S. Hong-Won, “Antidepressant-like effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten,” Experimental Neurobiology, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 30–38, 2010.

– P. V. Nguyen and E. R. Kandel, “A macromolecular synthesis-dependent late phase of long-term potentiation requiring cAMP in the medial perforant pathway of rat hippocampal slices,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 3189–3198, 1996.

– Panchal SK, Poudyal H, Brown L. Quercetin ameliorates cardiovascular, hepatic, and metabolic changes in diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats. J Nutr. 2012;42:1026–1032.

– Pathinayaka DJ. Yogamrutasindhu. Panadura, Sri Lanka: Panadura Press; 1930. pp. 37–81.

– Pereira RF, Bártolo PJ. Traditional therapies for skin wound healing. Adv Wound Care. 2016;5:208–229.

– Perrin S, Warchol M, Grill JP, Schneider F. Fermentations of fructooligosaccharides and their components by Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 15697 on batch culture in semi-synthetic medium. J Appl Microbiol. 2001;90:859–865.

– Persano Oddo L, Piro R. Main European unifloral honeys: descriptive sheets. Apidologie. 2004;35:S38–S81.

– Persano OL, Piazza MG  and  Pulcini  P. Invertase activity of honey. Apidologie, 1999; 30: 57-65.

– Petretto GL, Tuberoso CI, Vlahopoulou G, et al. Volatiles, color characteristics and other physico-chemical parameters of commercial Moroccan honeys. Nat Prod Res. 2016;30:286–292.

– Petrus K, Schwartz H, Sontag G. Analysis of flavonoids in honey by HPLC coupled with coulometric electrode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011;400:2555–2563.

– Pichichero E, Cicconi R, Mattei M, Muzi MG, Canini A. Acacia honey and chrysin reduce proliferation of melanoma cells through alterations in cell cycle progression. Int J Oncol. 2010;37:973–981.

– Pisani A, Protano G and Riccobono F. Minor and trace  elements  in  different  honey  types produced in Siena  County  (Italy). J Food Chem, 2008; 107: 1553-1560.

– Pliny  the  Elder.  The  Natural  History.  Penguins Book limited NewYork, USA, 1991.

– Pohl P. Determination of metal content in honey by atomic absorption and emission spectrometries. Trends Anal Chem. 2009;28:117–128.

– Pokorn D, Vukmirovic V. In: Book of Proceedings of III International Apitherapy Symposium. Bukarest Apimondia, editor. Portoroz, Yugoslavia; 1978. Velocity of gastric emptying of saccharides after administering honey and pure invert sugar; pp. 277–279.

– Popa, D. Ustunol, Z . (2011). Influence of sucrose, high fructose corn syrup and honey from different floral sources on growth and acid production by lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. International Journal of Dairy Technology , 64: 247–253.

– Potts SG, Roberts SPM, Dean R, et al. (2010). Declines of managed honey bees and beekeepers in Europe. Journal of Apicultural Research 49 (1):15-22.

– Proverb 24, 13. The Holy Bible. Authorised King James Version. Oxford University Press, New York; 1972.

– Q. Li, H. F. Zhao, Z. F. Zhang et al., “Long-term green tea catechin administration prevents spatial learning and memory impairment in senescence-accelerated mouse prone-8 mice by decreasing Aβ1-42 oligomers and upregulating synaptic plasticity-related proteins in the hippocampus,” Neuroscience, vol. 163, no. 3, pp. 741–749, 2009.

– R. A. Nicoll and R. C. Malenka, “Contrasting properties of two forms of long-term potentiation in the hippocampus,” Nature, vol. 377, no. 6545, pp. 115–118, 1995.

– R. K. Chute, N. G. Deogade, and M. Kawale, “Antimicrobial activity of Indian honey against clinical isolates,” Asiatic Journal of Biotechnology Resources, vol. 1, pp. 35–38, 2010.

– R. Kannappan, S. C. Gupta, J. H. Kim, S. Reuter, and B. B. Aggarwal, “Neuroprotection by spice-derived nutraceuticals: you are what you eat!,” Molecular Neurobiology, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 142–159, 2011.

– R. N. Mishra, “Rasayan—the ayurvedic perspective,” Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 269–282, 2011.

– R. Tarawneh and J. E. Galvin, “Potential future neuroprotective therapies for neurodegenerative disorders and stroke,” Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 125–147, 2010.

– Rakha MK, Nabil ZI, Hussein AA. Cardioactive and vasoactive effects of natural wild honey against cardiac malperformance induced by hyperadrenergic activity. J Med Food. 2008;11:91–98.

– Ramenghi LA, Amerio G, Sabatino G. Honey, a palatable substance for infants: from De Rerum Natura to evidence-based medicine. Eur J Pediatr. 2001;160:677–678.

– Ramenghi LA, Amerio G, Sabatino G. Honey, a palatable substance for infants: from De Rerum Natura to evidence-based medicine. Eur J Paed. 2001; 160:677–678.

– Ranjit Singh AJA, Padmalatha C. Ethno-entomological practices in Tirunelveli district, Tamil Nadu. Indian J Trad Knowl. 2004;3:4442–4446.

– Ranzato E, Martinotti S, Burlando B. Epithelial mesenchymal transition traits in honey-driven keratinocyte wound healing: comparison among different honeys. Wound Repair Regen. 2012;20:778–785.

– Ranzato E, Martinotti S, Burlando B. Honey exposure stimulates wound repair of human dermal fibroblasts. Burns Trauma. 2013;1:32–38.

– Rashed MN, Soltan ME. Major and trace elements in different types of Egyptian mono-floral and non-floral bee honeys. J Food Compos Anal. 2004;17:725–735.

– Rastall, R. A. Gibson, G. R . (2015). Recent developments in prebiotics to selectively impact beneficial microbes and promote intestinal health. Current Opinion in Biotechnology , 32, 42–46.

– Rastall, R. A. Maitin, V . (2002). Prebiotics and synbiotics: towards the next generation. Current Opinion in Biotechnology , 13: 490–496.

– Rayes, A. A. H . (2012). Enhancement of probiotic bioactivity by some prebiotics to produce bio-fermented milk. Life Science Journal , 9: 2246–2253.

– Raynaud A, Ghezali L, Gloaguen V, Liagre B, Quero F, Petit JM. Honey-induced macrophage stimulation: AP-1 and NF-κB activation and cytokine production are unrelated to LPS content of honey. Int Immunopharmacol. 2013;17:874–879.

– Reddy BS, Hamid R, Rao CV. Effect of dietary oligofructose and inulin on colonic preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci inhibition. Carcinogenesis. 1997;18:1371–1374.

– Regulski M. A novel wound care dressing for chronic leg ulcerations. Pediatry Manag. 2008;27:235–246.

– Rendroff  R,  Kuglar AK,  Bartlet  SS.  The Book of Leviticus  .Brill  Publishing  house  Netherland, 2003.

– Reuter, G . (2001). The Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium microflora of the human intestine: composition and succession. Current Issues in Intestinal Microbiology , 2: 43–53.

– Riazi, A. Ziar, H . (2008). Growth and viability of yogurt starter organisms in honey-sweetened skimmed milk. African Journal of Biotechnology , 7: 2055–2063.

– Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ, Paganga G. Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds. Trends Plant Sci. 1997;2:152–159.

– Rivero-Urgell M, Santamaria-Orleans A. Oligosaccharides: application in infant food (review) Early Hum Dev. 2001;65:43–52.

– Roberfroid MB. Prebiotics and probiotics: are they functional foods? Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71:1682S–1687S.

– Roberfroid, M . (1993). Dietary fiber, inulin, and oligofructose: a review comparing their physiological effects. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition , 33: 103–148.

– Roberfroid, M. B . (2000). Prebiotics and probiotics: are they functional foods? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition , 71(6 Suppl), 1682S–1690S.

– Roberfroid, M. et al.   . (2010). Prebiotic effects: metabolic and health benefits. British Journal of Nutrition , 104(Suppl 2), S1–S63.

– Roccarina, D. Lauritano, E.C. Gabrielli, M. Franceschi, F. Ojetti, V. Gasbarrini, A . (2010). The role of methane in intestinal diseases. American Journal of Gastroenterology , 2010, 105: 1250–1256

– Rodrigues AS. Até quando o etnoconhecimento sobre as abelhassem ferrão (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae) será transmitido entre gerações pelos índios guarani m’byá da aldeia morro da saudade, localizada na cidade de São Paulo, estado de São Paulo, Brasil? Sitientibus Série Ciências Biológicas. 2006;6:343–350.

– Rodríguez-Flores S, Escuredo O, Seijo MC. Characterization and antioxidant capacity of sweet chestnut honey produced in North-West Spain. J Apic Sci. 2016;60:19–30.

– Rolfe, R. D . (2000). The role of probiotic cultures in the control of gastrointestinal health. Journal of Nutrition , 130(2 Suppl), 396S–402S.

– Rosendale, D. I. Maddox, I. S. Miles, M. C. Rodier, M. Skinner, M. Sutherland, J . (2008). High-throughput microbial bioassays to screen potential New Zealand functional food ingredients intended to manage the growth of probiotic and pathogenic gut bacteria. International Journal of Food Science and Technology , 43: 2257–2267.

– Ruxton C (2013). Honey: Natural, healthier sweetness. Network Health Dietitian 81:25-26.

– S. A. Mandel, Y. Avramovich-Tirosh, L. Reznichenko et al., “Multifunctional activities of green tea catechins in neuroprotection: modulation of cell survival genes, iron-dependent oxidative stress and PKC signaling pathway,” NeuroSignals, vol. 14, no. 1-2, pp. 46–60, 2005.

– S. Bogdanov, T. Jurendic, R. Sieber, and P. Gallmann, “Honey for nutrition and health: a review,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 677–689, 2008.

– S. J. Martin, P. D. Grimwood, and R. G. M. Morris, “Synaptic plasticity and memory: an evaluation of the hypothesis,” Annual Review of Neuroscience, vol. 23, pp. 649–711, 2000.

– S. Jang, R. N. Dilger, and R. W. Johnson, “Luteolin inhibits microglia and alters hippocampal-dependent spatial working memory in aged mice,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 140, no. 10, pp. 1892–1898, 2010.

– S. Larry, B. Darwin, E. B. Floyd et al., Fundamental Neuroscience, Elsevier Science, New York, NY, USA, 2003.

– S. Li and X.-P. Pu, “Neuroprotective effect of kaempferol against a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine-induced mouse model of Parkinson’s disease,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 1291–1296, 2011.

– S. N. Young and S. Gauthier, “Effect of tryptophan administration on tryptophan, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and indoleacetic acid in human lumbar and cisternal cerebrospinal fluid,” Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 323–328, 1981.

– S. Nurul, S. Gan, A. Halim, N. Shah, and H. Sukari, “Analysis of volatile compounds of Malaysian Tualang (Koompassia excelsa) honey using gas chromatography mass spectrometry,” African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 180–188, 2012.

– S. Schmitt-Schillig, S. Schaffer, C. C. Weber, G. P. Eckert, and W. E. Müller, “Flavonoids and the aging brain,” Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 23–36, 2005.

– S.-H. Kwon, H.-K. Lee, J.-A. Kim et al., “Neuroprotective effects of chlorogenic acid on scopolamine-induced amnesia via anti-acetylcholinesterase and anti-oxidative activities in mice,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 649, no. 1–3, pp. 210–217, 2010.

– Saarela, M. Mogensen, G. Fondén, R. Mättö, J. Mattila-Sandholm, T . (2000). Probiotic bacteria: safety, functional and technological properties. Journal of Biotechnology , 84: 197–215.

– Sahih Bukhari vol. 7, book 71, number 584, 585, 588 and 603.

– Sajid M,Azim MK. Characterization ofthe nematicidal activity of natural honey. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60(30):7428–7434.

– Sakai D. Adhesion of Aeromonas salmonicida strains associated with net electrostatic changes of host tissue cells. Infect Immun. 1987;55:704–710.

– Salehi A, Jabarzare S, Neurmohamadi M, Kheiri S, Rafieian-Kopaei M. A double blind clinical trial on the efficacy of honey drop in vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Evid Based Compl Altern Med. 2014:2014;4.

– Salem SN. Honey regimen in gastrointestinal disorders. Bull Islamic Med. 1981;1:358–362.

– Salminen, S. et al. (1998). Functional food science and gastrointestinal physiology and function. British Journal of Nutrition , 80(Suppl 1), S147–S171.

– Samarghandian S, Afshari JT, Davoodi S. Honey induces apoptosis in renal cell carcinoma. Pharmacogn Mag. 2011;7:46–52.

– Sampath Kumar KP, Bhowmik D, Chiranjib , Biswajit , Chandira MR. Medicinal uses and health benefits of Honey: An overview. J Chem Pharm Res . 2010;2:385–395.

– Sanchez M, Galisteo M, Vera R, et al. Quercetin downregulates NADPH oxidase, increases eNOS activity and prevents endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Hypertens. 2006;24:75–84.

– Santos GM, Antonini Y. The traditional knowledge on stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponina) used by the Enawene-Nawe tribe in western Brazil. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2008;4:19.

– Sanz ML, Polemis N, Morales V, Corzo N, Drakoularakou A, Gibson GR, Rastall RA. In vitro investigation into the potential prebiotic activity of honey oligosaccharides. J Agri Food Chem. 2005;53:2914–2921.

– Sanz, M. L. González, M. De Lorenzo, C. Sanz, J. Martínez-Castro, I . (2004). Carbohydrate composition and physico chemical properties of artisanal honeys from Madrid (Spain): occurence of Echium sp honey. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture , 84: 1577–1584.

– Saran, S. Singh, K. Bisht, M. S. Teotia, U. V. S. Dobriyal, A. K . (2011). Comparison of prebiotics for the functional attributes of an indigenous isolate of Lactobacillus acidophilus . International Journal of Probiotics and Prebiotics , 6: 173–178.

– Sarhan WA, Azzazy HM, El-Sherbiny IM. Honey/chitosan nanofiber wound dressing enriched with Allium sativum and Cleome droserifolia: enhanced antimicrobial and wound healing activity. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2016;8:6379–6390.

– Savage, D.C . (1977). Microbial ecology of the gastrointestinal tract. Annual Reviews in Microbiology , 1977, 31: 107–133.

– Schencke C, Vasconcellos A, Sandoval C, Torres P, Acevedo F, del Sol M. Morphometric evaluation of wound healing in burns treated with Ulmo (Eucryphia cordifolia) honey alone and supplemented with ascorbic acid in guinea pig (Cavia porcellus). Burns Trauma. 2016;4:25.

– Schencke C, Vásquez B, Sandoval C, Del Sol M. El rol de la miel en los procesos morfofisiologicos de reparación de heridas. Int J Morphol. 2016;34:385–395.

– Schley PD, Field CJ. The immune-enhancing effects of dietary fibres and prebiotics. Br J Nutr. 2002;87:S221–S230.

– Schramm DD, Karim M, Schrader HR, Holt RR, Cardetti M, Keen CL. Honey with high levels of antioxidants can provide protection to healthy human subjects. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:1732–1735.

– Schwingshack L & Hoffman G (2013). Long-term effects of low glycemic index/load vs. high glycemic index/load diets on parameters of obesity and obesity-associated risks: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Health 23(8):699-706.

– Scientific committee on veterinary measures relating to public health (2002). Opinion of the scientific committee on veterinary measures relating to public health on honey and microbiological hazards. Brussels: European Commission.

– Sela MO, Shapira L, Grizim I, Lewinstein I, Steinberg D, Gedalia I, Grobler SR. Effects of honey consumption on enamel microhardness in normal versus xerostomic patients. J Oral Rehabil. 1998;25:630–634.

– Selwyn AP, Braunwald E. Ischemic heart diseases. In: Kasper LD, Fauci SA, editors. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 16th ed. New York: The McGraw-Hill companies; 2004. pp. 1434–1444.

– Sewllam T, Miyanaga N, Onozawa M, Hattori K, Kawari K, Shimazui T, Akaza H. Antineoplastic activity of honey in an experimental bladder cancer implantation model: in vivo and in vitro studies. Int J Urol. 2003;10:213–219.

– Sghaier MB, Skandrani I, Nasr N, Franca MD, Chekir-Ghedira L, Ghedira K. Flavonoids and sesquiterpenes from Tecurium ramosissimum promote antiproliferation of human cancer cells and enhance antioxidant activity: a structure-activity relationship study. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2011;32:336–348.

– Shah, N. Ding, W. Fallourd, M. Leyer, G . (2010). Improving the stability of probiotic bacteria in model fruit juices using vitamins and antioxidants. Journal of Food Science , 75: M278–M282.

– Shahzad A, Cohrs RJ. In vitro antiviral activity of honey against varicella zoster virus (VZV): a translational medicine study for potential remedy for shingles. Transl Biomed. 2012;3:2.

– Shamala TR, Jyothi YS, Saibaba P. Stimulatory effect of honey on multiplication of lactic acid bacteria under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2000;30:453–455.

– Sharma, S. Sreeja, V. Prajapati, J. B . (2016). Development of synbiotic lassi containing honey: studies on probiotic viability, product characteristics and shelf life. Indian Journal of Dairy Science , 69: 148–153.

– Shen Y, Croft KD, Hodgson JM, et al. Quercetin and its metabolites improve vessel function by inducing eNOS activity via phosphorylation of AMPK. Biochem Pharmacol. 2012;15:1036–1044.

– Shenoy R, Bialasiewicz A, Khandekar R, Al Barwani B, Al Belushi H. Traditional medicine in Oman: its role in ophthalmology. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol. 2009;16:92–96.

– Shimazawa M, Chikamatsu S, Morimoto N, Mishima S, Nagai H, Hara H. Neuroprotection by Brazilian green propolis against in vitro and in vivo ischemic neuronal damage. eCAM. 2005;2:201–7.

– Shin H, Ustunol Z. Carbohydrate composition of honey from different floral sources and their influence on growth of selected intestinal bacteria. Food Res Inter. 2005;38:721–728.

– Shu, Liu . (2008). Novel Probiotic Strain and Compositions , 526544th ed. New Zealand Patent:

– Shu, Q. et al.   . (1999). Probiotic lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus HN017, Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019) have no adverse effects on the health of mice. International Dairy Journal , 9: 831–836.

– Shu, Q. et al.   . (2000). Dietary Bifidobacterium lactis (HN019) enhances resistance to oral Salmonella typhimurium, infection in mice. Microbiology and Immunology , 44: 213–222.

– Shu, Q. Gill, H. S . (2000). A dietary probiotic (Bifidobacterium lactis HN019) reduces the severity of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection in mice. Medical Microbiology and Immunology , 189: 147–152.

– Shu, Q. Gill, H. S . (2002). Immune protection mediated by the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (DR20™) against Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection in mice. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology , 34: 59–64.

– Shu, Q. Qu, F. Gill, H. S . (2001). Probiotic treatment using Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 reduces weanling diarrhea associated with rotavirus and Escherichia coli infection in a piglet model. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition , 33: 171–177.

– Siddiqui, I. R. Furgala, B . (1967). Isolation and characterization of oligosaccharides from honey. Part I. Disaccharides. Journal of Apicultural Research , 6: 139–145.

– Siddiqui, I. R. Furgala, B . (1968). Isolation and characterization of oligosaccharides from honey. Part II. Trisaccharides. Journal of Apicultural Research , 7: 51–59.

– Simon A, Traynor k, Santos k, Blaser G, Bode U, Molan P. Medical honey for wound care—still the ‘latest resort’? eCAM . 2007:1–9.

– Slacanac, V. Hardi, J. Lucan, M. Kun, S. Havas, P. Krstanovic, V . (2011). Effect of honey addition on fermentation activity of Lactobacillus casei Lc-01 in cow’s and goat’s milk: a kinetic study. Acta Alimentaria , 40: 270–281.

– Slavian J. Fiber and prebiotics: mechanisms and health benefits. Nutrients. 2013;5:1417–1435. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

– Slobodianiuk AA, Slobodianiuk MS. Complex treatment of gastritis patients with high stomach secretion in combination with (and without) a 15–20 % solution of honey. 1969. Citation from [16]

– Smith T, Hanft JR, Legel K. Topical Leptospermum honey in recalcitrant venous leg wounds: a preliminary case series. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2009;22:68–71.

– Smith, E. A. Macfarlane, G. T . (1996). Enumeration of human colonie bacteria producing phenolic and indolic compounds: effects of pH, carbohydrate availability and retention time on dissimilatory aromatic amino acid metabolism. Journal of Applied Bacteriology , 81: 288–302.

– Sojka M, Valachova I, Bucekova M, Majtan J. Antibiofilm efficacy of honey and bee-derived defensin-1 on multispecies wound biofilm. J Med Microbiol. 2016;65:337–344.

– Solovan A, Paulmurugan R, Wilsanand V, Ranjith Sing AJA. Traditional therapeutic uses of animals among tribal population of Tamil Nadu. Indian J Trad Knowl. 2004;3:2206–2207.

– Song JJ, Salcido R. Use of honey in wound care: an update. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2011;24:40–44.

– Sousa JM, Souza EL, Marques G, et al. Polyphenolic profile and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of monofloral honeys produced by Meliponini in the Brazilian semiarid region. Food Res Int. 2016;84:61–68.

– Spilioti E, Jaakkola M, Tolonen T, et al. Phenolic acid composition, antiatherogenic and anticancer potential of honeys derived from various regions in Greece. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e94860.

– Steinberg D, Kaine G, Gedalia I. Antibacterial effect of propolis and honey on oral bacteria. Am J Dent. 1996;9:236–239.

– Storz G, Imlay JA. Oxidative stress. Cur Opin Microbiol. 1999;2:188–194.

– Subrahmanyam M. Storage of skin grafts in honey. Lancet. 1993;341:63–64.

– Subrahmanyam M. Topical application of honey in treatment of burns. Br J Surg. 1991;78:497–498.

– Susruta . Susruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana, Dravadravyavidhi Adhyaya – Madhu Varga, 45/132-142. 7th edition 2002. Vaidya Jadavaji Trikamji Acharya. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; pp. 207–8.

– Swellam T, Miyanaga N, Onozawa M, et al. Antineoplastic activity of honey in an experimental bladder cancer implantation model: in vivo and in vitro studies. Int J Urol. 2003;10:213–219.

– Sydnor ERM, Perl TM. Hospital epidemiology and infection control in acute-care settings. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2011;24:141–173.

– T. Baluchnejadmojarad and M. Roghani, “Effect of naringenin on intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced cognitive deficits in rat: a behavioral analysis,” Pharmacology, vol. 78, no. 4, pp. 193–197, 2006.

– T. C. Frank-Cannon, L. T. Alto, F. E. McAlpine, and M. G. Tansey, “Does neuroinflammation fan the flame in neurodegenerative diseases?” Molecular Neurodegeneration, vol. 4, no. 1, article 47, 2009.

– T. Kakuda, “Neuroprotective effects of the green tea components theanine and catechins,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 1513–1518, 2002.

– T. Sato and G. Miyata, “The nutraceutical benefit, part III: honey,” Nutrition, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 468–469, 2000. View at Publisher .

– T. V. P. Bliss and G. L. Collingridge, “A synaptic model of memory: long-term potentiation in the hippocampus,” Nature, vol. 361, no. 6407, pp. 31–39, 1993.

– T.-J. Chen, J.-Y. Jeng, C.-W. Lin, C.-Y. Wu, and Y.-C. Chen, “Quercetin inhibition of ROS-dependent and -independent apoptosis in rat glioma C6 cells,” Toxicology, vol. 223, no. 1-2, pp. 113–126, 2006.

– Talarico, T. L. Casas, I. A. Chung, T. C. Dobrogosz, W. J . (1988). Production and isolation of reuterin, a growth inhibitor produced by Lactobacillus reuteri . Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy , 32: 1854–1858.

– Tallet S, Mackkenzie C, Middleton P, Kerzner B, Hamilton R. Clinical, laboratory and epidemiologic features of viral gastroenteritis in infants and children. Paediatrics. 1977;60:217–222.

– Telles S, Puthige R, Visweswaraiah NK. An Ayurvedic basis for using honey to treat herpes. Med Sci Monit. 2007;13:LE17–17.

– Tian, H . (2013). The biotherapeutic potential of Lactobacillus reuteri DPC16 and bovine lactoferrin in controlling some pathogens, genotoxicity and inflammation in the gut . (Doctoral dissertation), Massey University, New Zealand.

– Tian, H. Maddox, I. S. Ferguson, L. R. Shu, Q . (2010a). Evaluation of the cytoprotective effects of bovine lactoferrin against intestinal toxins using cellular model systems. BioMetals , 23: 589–592.

– Tian, H. Maddox, I. S. Ferguson, L. R. Shu, Q . (2010b). Influence of bovine lactoferrin on selected probiotic bacteria and intestinal pathogens. BioMetals , 23: 593–596.

– Timm M, Bartfelt S, Hansen EW. Immunomodulatory effects of honey cannot be distinguished from endotoxin. Cytokine. 2008;42:113–120.

– Tisera HM. Eth beheth saha Aharaya pilibanda upades. Colombo, Sri Lanka: Samajaya saha Samayika Kendra Publishers; 2000. pp. 15–23.

– Tissier, H . (1907). Traitement des infections intestinales par la méthode de transformation de la flore bactérienne de l’intestin. [The treatment of intestinal infections by the method of transforming bacterial flora of the intestines.] Comptes Rendus Des Seances De La Societe De Biologie Et De Ses Filiales , 60, 359–361.

– Tomás-Barberán FA, Martos I, Ferreres F, Radovic BS, Auklam E. HPLC flavonoid profiles as markers for the botanical origin of European unifloral honeys. J Sci Food Agric. 2001;81:485–496.

– Tonks A, Cooper R, Price AJ, Molan PC, Jones KP. Stimulation of TNF-alpha release in monocytes by honey. Cytokine. 2001;14:240–242.

– Tonks AJ, Cooper RA, Jones KP, Blair S, Parton J, Tonks A. Honey stimulates inflammatory cytokine production from monocytes. Cytokine. 2003;21:242–247.

– Topham J. Why do some cavity wounds treated with honey or sugar paste heal without scarring? J Wound Care . 2002;11:53–55.

– Truchado P, Ferreres F, Tomas-Barberan FA. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry reveals the widespread occurrence of flavonoid glycosides in honey, and their potential as floral origin markers. J Chromatogr A. 2009;1216:7241–7248.

– Truchado P, López-Gálvez F, Gil MI, Tomás-Barberán FA, Allende A. Quorum sensing inhibitory and antimicrobial activities of honeys and the relationship with individual phenolics. Food Chem. 2009;115:1337–1344.

– Tsai CJ, Loh JM, Proft T. Galleria mellonella infection models for the study of bacterial diseases and for antimicrobial drug testing. Virulence. 2016;7:214–229. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

– Tsiapara AV, Jaakkola M, Chinou I, et al. Bioactivity of Greek honey extracts on breast cancer (MCF-7), prostate cancer (PC-3) and endometrial cancer (Ishikawa) cells: profile analysis of extracts. Food Chem. 2009;116:702–708.

– Tuberoso CI, Jerković I, Bifulco E, Marijanović Z, Congiu F, Bubalo D. Riboflavin and lumichrome in Dalmatian sage honey and other unifloral honeys determined by LC-DAD technique. Food Chem. 2012;135:1985–1990.

– Tuberoso CI, Jerković I, Bifulco E, Marijanović Z. Biodiversity of Salix spp. honeydew and nectar honeys determined by RP-HPLC and evaluation of their antioxidant capacity. Chem Biodivers. 2011;8:872–879.

– Tuberoso CIG, Bifulco E, Caboni P, Cottiglia F, Cabras P, Floris I. Floral markers of strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) honey. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:384–389.

– Tuberoso CIG, Bifulco E, Jerković I, Caboni P, Cabras P, Floris I. Methyl syringate: a chemical marker of asphodel (Asphodelus microcarpus Salzm. et Viv.) monofloral honey. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:3895–3900.

– Turkmen N, Sari F, Poyrazoglu ES, Velioglu YS. Effects of prolonged heating on antioxidant activity and colour of honey. Food Chem. 2006;95:653–657.

– Ukrinform. Ukrainian honey – World Congress Triumpher. at Montpellier, France; 2009.

– Ulubelen A, Topcu G, Tan N, Ölçal S, Johansson C, Üçer M. Biological activities of a Turkish medicinal plant, Prangos platychlaena. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1995;45:193–197.

– Urmila  K,  Sanjay  A.  Comparative pharmacognostical  evaluation  of  honey  of marketed products.  Int J Pharm  Life  Sci ,2010; 1(2),109-112.

– Ustunol Z, Gandhi H. Growth and viability of commercial Bifidobacterium spp. on honey sweetened skim milk. J Food Prot. 2001;64(11):1775–1779.

– V. M. French, R. A. Cooper, and P. C. Molan, “The antibacterial activity of honey against coagulase-negative staphylococci,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 228–231, 2005.

– V. Sharma, M. Mishra, S. Ghosh et al., “Modulation of interleukin-1β mediated inflammatory response in human astrocytes by flavonoids: implications in neuroprotection,” Brain Research Bulletin, vol. 73, no. 1–3, pp. 55–63, 2007.

– Valeur, N. Engel, P. Carbajal, N. Connolly, E. Ladefoged, K . (2004). Colonization and immunomodulation by Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 in the human gastrointestinal tract. Applied and Environmental Microbiology , 70: 1176–1181.

– Van der Weyden EA. The use of honey for the treatment of two patients with pressure ulcers. Br J Community Nurs . 2003;8:S14–20.

– Van Laere, K . (1997). Fermentative degradation of plant cell wall derived oligosaccharides by intestinal bacteria. Non-digestible oligosaccharides: healthy food for the colon? Proceedings of the International Symposium , Wageningen Graduate School VLAG, Wageningen, the Netherlands, 37–46.

– van Loo, J. Coussement, P. de Leenheer, L. Hoebregs, H. Smits, G . (1995). On the presence of inulin and oligofructose as natural ingredients in the western diet. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition , 35: 525–552.

– Vandamme L, Heyneman A, Hoeksema H, Verbelen J, Moustrey S. Honey in modern wound care: a systematic review. Burns. 2013;39:1514–1525.

– Varga, L. Süle, J. Nagy, P . (2014). Short communication: viability of culture organisms in honey-enriched acidophilus-bifidus-thermophilus (ABT)-type fermented camel milk. Journal of Dairy Science , 97: 6814–6818.

– Vinson JA, Hao Y, Su X, Zubik L. Phenol antioxidant quantity and quality in foods: vegetables. J Agric Food Chem. 1998;46:3630–3634.

– Viuda-Martos M, Navajas Y, Fernández-López J, Pérez-Álvarez JA. Functional properties of honey, propolis, and royal jelly. J Food Sci. 2008;73:R117–R124.

– Wadi II, Al-Amin H, Farouq A, Kashe FH, Khaled SA. Sudanese bee honey in the treatment of suppurating wounds. Arab Medico. 1987;3:16–18.

– Wang J, Li QX. Chemical composition, characterization and differentiation of honey botanical and geographical origins. Adv Food Nutr Res. 2011;62:89–137.

– Wang R, Starkey M, Hazan R, Rahme LG. Honey’s ability to counter bacterial infections arises from both bactericidal compounds and QS inhibition. Frontr Microbiol. 2012;3:144.

– Wang Y, Juliani R, Simon JE, Ho C. Amino acid-dependent formation pathways of 2-acetylfuran and 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3[2H]-furanone in the Maillard reaction. Food Chem. 2009;115:233–237.

– Wasfi R, Elkhatib WF, Khairalla AS. Effects of selected Egyptian honeys on the cellular ultrastructure and the gene expression profile of Escherichia coli. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0150984.

– Webb  BG.  The  Book  of  Judges.  William  B. Eerdmans Publishing House Oak USA, 2012.

– Weissenstein A, Luchter E, Bittmann S. Medical honey and its role in paediatric patients. Br J Nurs. 2014;23(6):S30–S34.

– Weston, R. J. Brocklebank, L. K . (1999). The oligosaccharide composition of some New Zealand honeys. Food Chemistry , 64: 33–37.

– White  JW,  Doner  LW.  Honey  composition  and properties:  Beekeeping  in  the  United  States. Agriculture  Handbook  No.  335,  Revised October, 1980; pp 82–91.

– White  JW.  Composition  of  honey.  In  E.  Crane (Ed)  Honey,  a  comprehensive  survey London, Heinemann, 1975; pp. 157-206.

– White Jr, J. W. Subers, M. H. Schepartz, A. I . (1963). The identification of inhibine, the antibacterial factor in honey, as hydrogen peroxide and its origin in a honey glucose-oxidase system. BBA–Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta , 73: 57–70.

– Windey, K. de Preter, V. Verbeke, K . (2012). Relevance of protein fermentation to gut health. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research , 56: 184–196.

– Winkler, P. De Vrese, M. Laue, C. Schrezenmeir, J . (2005). Effect of a dietary supplement containing probiotic bacteria plus vitamins and minerals on common cold infections and cellular immune parameters. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics , 43: 318–326.

– Won S-R, Li C-Y, Kim J-W, Rhee H-I. Immunological characterization of honey major protein and its application. Food Chem. 2009;113:1334–1338.

– Wong, J. M. W. De Souza, R. Kendall, C. W. C. Emam, A. Jenkins, D. J. A . (2006). Colonic health: fermentation and short chain fatty acids. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology , 40: 235–243.

– X.-L. He, Y.-H. Wang, M.-G. Bi, and G.-H. Du, “Chrysin improves cognitive deficits and brain damage induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 680, no. 1–3, pp. 41–48, 2012.

– Y. Lei, J. Chen, W. Zhang et al., “In vivo investigation on the potential of galangin, kaempferol and myricetin for protection of D-galactose-induced cognitive impairment,” Food Chemistry, vol. 135, no. 4, pp. 2702–2707, 2012.

– Y. Li, W. Shi, Y. Li et al., “Neuroprotective effects of chlorogenic acid against apoptosis of PC12 cells induced by methylmercury,” Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 13–21, 2008.

– Y. Lin, R. Shi, X. Wang, and H.-M. Shen, “Luteolin, a flavonoid with potential for cancer prevention and therapy,” Current Cancer Drug Targets, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 634–646, 2008.

– Y. Luo, H.-P. Zhao, J. Zhang et al., “Effect of ferulic acid on learning and memory impairments of vascular dementia rats and its mechanism of action,” Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 256–260, 2012.

– Y. Oyama, P. A. Fuchs, N. Katayama, and K. Noda, “Myricetin and quercetin, the flavonoid constituents of Ginkgo biloba extract, greatly reduce oxidative metabolism in both resting and Ca2+-loaded brain neurons,” Brain Research, vol. 635, no. 1-2, pp. 125–129, 1994.

– Yaacob NS, Nengsih A, Norazmi MN. Tualang honey promotes apoptotic cell death induced by tamoxifen in breast cancer cell lines. Evid Based Compl Altern Med. 2013;2013:9.

– Yaghoobi N, Al-Waili N, Ghayour-Mobarhan M, et al. Natural honey and cardiovascular risk factors; effects on blood glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerole, CRP, and body weight compared with sucrose. Sci World J. 2008;8:463–469.

– Yahya H. In: Translation by C Rossini. Livingstone D, Talib QM, Willoughby J, editor. Goodword Books, New Delhi; 2005. Allah’s Miracles in the Qur’an.

– Yamada K, Tokunaga Y, Ikeda A. et al. Dietary effect of guar gum and its partially hydrolyzed product on the lipid metabolism and immune function of Sprague Dawley rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1999;63:2163–2167.

– Yan X, Murphy BT, Hammond GB, Vinson JA, Neto CC. Antioxidant activities and antitumor screening of extracts from cranberry fruit (Vaccinium macrocarpon) J Agri Food Chem. 2002;50:5844–5849.

– Yao L, Datta N, Tomás-Barberán FA, Ferreres F, Martos I, Singanusong R. Flavonoids, phenolic acids and abscisic acid in Australian and New Zealand Leptospermum honeys. Food Chem. 2003;81:159–168.

– Yao L, Jiang Y, D’Arcy B, et al. Quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography analyses of flavonoids in Australian Eucalyptus honeys. J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52:210–214.

– Yun YW. Fructooligosaccharides – occurrence, preparation and application. Enzyme Microb Technol. 1996;19:107–117.

– Z. Othman, N. Shafin, R. Zakaria, N. H. N. Hussain, and W. M. Z. W. Mohammad, “Improvement in immediate memory after 16 weeks of tualang honey (Agro Mas) supplement in healthy postmenopausal women,” Menopause, vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 1219–1224, 2011.

– Zaid SM, Sulaiman SA, Sirajudeen NM, Othman NH. The effects of tualang honey on female reproductive organs, tibia bone and hormonal profile in ovariectomised rats – animal model for menopause. BMC Compl Altern Med. 2010;10:82.

– Zainol MI, Mohd Yusoff K, Mohd Yusof MY. Antibacterial activity of selected Malaysian honey. BMC Compl Altern Med. 2013;13:129.

– Zalibera M, Stasko A, Slebodova A, Jancovicova V, Cermakova T, Brezova A. Antioxidant and radical-scavenging activities of Slovak honeys – An electron paramagnetic resonance study. Food Chem. 2008;110:512–521.

– Zeina B, Othman O, Al-Assad S. Effect of honey versus thyme on Rubella virus survival in vitro. J Altern Complement Med. 1996;2:345–348.

– Zeina B, Zohra BI, al Assad S. The effects of honey on Leishmania parasites: an in vitro study. Trop Doct. 1997;27(Suppl 1):36–38.

– Zhao J, Du X, Cheng N, et al. Identification of monofloral honeys using HPLC-ECD, and chemometrics. Food Chem. 2016;194:167–174.

– Zhao, Q. Lee, S. J. Mutukumira, A. N. Maddox, I. Shu, Q . (2011). Viability and delivery of immobilised Lactobacillus reuteri DPC16 within calcium alginate gel systems during sequential passage through simulated gastrointestinal fluids. Beneficial Microbes , 2: 129–138.

– Zhao, Q. Maddox, I. S. Mutukumira, A. Lee, S. J. Shu, Q . (2012). The effect of cell immobilization on the antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus reuteri DPC16 cells during passage through a simulated gastrointestinal tract system. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology , 28: 3025–3037.

– Zhao, Q. Mutukumira, A. Lee, S. J. Maddox, I. Shu, Q . (2012). Functional properties of free and encapsulated Lactobacillus reuteri DPC16 during and after passage through a simulated gastrointestinal tract. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology , 28: 61–70.

– Zumla A, Lulat A. Honey: a remedy rediscovered. J R Soc Med. 1989;82:384–385.

Metry, W. A. Owayss, A . (2009). Influence of incorporating honey and royal jelly on the quality of yoghurt during storage. Egyptian Journal of Food Science , 37, 115–131.