References for Mushroom Powder for Digestion – M.Diges

References for Trametes Coriolus versicolor

– AB Miller, B Hoogstraten, M Staquet A. Reporting results of cancer treatment Cancer, 47 (1981), pp. 207-214.

– A Kauppila, V Raunio, PJ Taskinen Immunosuppressive effect of radiotherapy on patients with lung cancer Ann Clin Res, 8 (1976), pp. 98-103.

– A Keys, F Fidanza, MJ Karvonen Indices of relative weight and obesity J Chron Dis, 25 (1972), pp. 329-343.

– Andersen BL, Farrar WB, Golden-Kreutz D, et al. Stress and immune responses after surgical treatment for regional breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1998;90(1):30–36.

– Aziz NM. Cancer survivorship research: state of knowledge, challenges and opportunities. Acta Oncologica2007;46(4):417-32.

– B Lam, WK Lam, CL Lam Adenocarcinoma of the lung in Chinese patients: a re-visit and some perspectives from the literature Postgrad Med J, 77 (2001), pp. 708-712.

– Barkholt L, Alici E, Conrad R, et al. Safety analysis of ex vivo-expanded NK and NK-like T cells administered to cancer patients: a phase I clinical study. Immunotherapy. 2009;1(5):753–764.

– Bryant J, Day R, Whiteside TL, Herbermann RB. Calculation of lytic units for the expression of cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Journal of Immunological Methods. 1992;146(1):91–103.

– C Nunez, D Gallagher, M Visser Heymsfield. Bioimpedance analysis: evaluation of leg-to-leg system based on pressure contact foot-pad electrodes Med, 29 (1997), p. Sci Sports Exerc 4th ser.

– CF Mountain Revisions in the international system for staging lung cancer Chest, 111 (1997), pp. 1710-1717.

– Chan SL, Yeung JH. Effects of polysaccharide peptide (PSP) from Coriolus versicolor on the pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide in the rat and cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Food and Chemical Toxicology 2006;44(5):689-94.

– Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission. Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China. Beijing: Chemical Industry Press, 2005.

– Chu KKW, Ho SSS, Chow AHL. Coriolus versicolor: a medicinal mushroom with promising immunotherapeutic values. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 2002;42(9):976–984.

– Cooley S, Weisdorf DS. Natural killer cells and tumor control. Current Opinion in Hematology. 2010;17(6):514–521.

– Cunningham-Rundles S, Filippa DA, Braun DW. Natural cytotoxicity of peripheral blood lymphocytes and regional lymph node cells in breast cancer in women. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1981;67(3):585–590.

– DH Johnson Evolution of cisplatin-based chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer. A historical perspective and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group experience Chest, 117 (2000), pp. 133S-137S.

1- Eliza WL, Fai CK, Chung LP. Efficacy of Yun Zhi (Coriolus versicolor) on survival in cancer patients: systematic review and meta-analysis. Recent Patents on Inflammation and Allergy Drug Discovery 2012;6(1):78-87.

– Fisher M, Yang LX. Anticancer effects and mechanisms of polysaccharide-K (PSK): implications of cancer immunotherapy. Anticancer Research. 2002;22(3):1737–1754.

– Gamble C, Hollis S. Uncertainty method improved on best-worst case analysis in a binary meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2005;58:579-88.

– Garcia-Lora A, Martinez M, Pedrinaci S, Garrido F. Different regulation of PKC isoenzymes and MAPK by Krestin (PSK)™ and IL-2 in the proliferative and cytotoxic activities of the NKL human natural killer cell line. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2003;52:59–64.

– Garcia-Lora A, Pedrinaci S, Garrido F. Protein-bound polysaccharide K and interleukin-2 regulate different nuclear transcription factors in the NKL human natural killer cell line. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2001;50:191–198.

– GD Yu, QZ Yin, YM Hu. Effects of Coriolus versicolor polysaccharides peptides on electric activity of mediobasal hypothalamus and on immune function in rats Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao, 17 (1996), pp. 271-274.

– Go P, Chung CH. Adjuvant Krestin (PSK)™ immunotherapy in patients with carcinoma of the nasopharynx. J Int Med Res. 1989;17:141–149.

– Gray NM, Hall SJ, Browne S, Macleod U, Mitchell E, Lee AJ, et al. Modifiable and fixed factors predicting quality of life in people with colorectal cancer. British Journal of Cancer2011;104(11):1697-703.

– Group Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Collaborative Chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer: meta-analysis using updated data in individual patients from 52 randomized clinical trials BMJ, 311 (1995), pp. 899-909.

– H Nakazato, A Koike, S Saji. Efficacy of immunochemotherapy as adjuvant treatment after curative resection of gastric cancer Lancet, 343 (1994), pp. 1122-1126.

– Habelhah H, Okada F, Nakai K, et al. Polysaccharide K induces Mn superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) in tumor tissues and inhibits malignant progression of QR-32 tumor cells: possible roles of interferon alpha, tumor necrosis factor alpha and transforming growth factor beta in Mn-SOD induction by polysaccharide K. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 1998;46:338–344.

– Harada M, Matsunaga K, Oguchi Y, et al. Oral administration of Krestin (PSK)™ can improve the impaired anti-tumor CD4+ T-cell response in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) of specific-pathogen-free mice. Int J Cancer. 1997;70:362–372.

– Hayakawa K, Mitsuhashi N, Saito Y, et al. Effect of Krestin (PSK) as adjuvant treatment on the prognosis after radical radiotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Anticancer Res. 1993;13:1815–1820.

– Hayashida Y, Kurimoto S, Yamamoto N. Effect of lymphokine-activated killer cells on human retinoblastoma cells (Y-79) in vitro: enhancement of the activity by a polysaccharide preparation, Krestin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991;174:107–114.

– Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Chapter 8: Assessing risk of bias in included studies. In: Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011.

– Hirono M, Yoshinaka K, Matsuki K, et al. Surgical treatment of Borrmann type 4 (diffuse) gastric cancer. Gan No Rinsho. 1984;30:717–723.

– Hirose K, Zachariae CO, Oppenheim JJ, Matsushima K. Induction of gene expression and production of immunomodulating cytokines by Krestin (PSK)™ in human peripheral blood mono-nuclear cells. Lymphokine Res. 1990;9:475–483.

– Hobbs C. Medicinal value of turkey tail fungus Trametes versicolor (L.:Fr.) Pilat (aphyllophoromycetideae) Int J Med Mushrooms. 2004;6:195–218.

– Hong F, Hansen RD, Yan J, et al. Beta-glucan functions as an adjuvant for monoclonal antibody immunotherapy by recruiting tumoricidal granulocytes as killer cells. Cancer Res. 2003;63:9023–9031.

– IH Lin, DM Hau, YH Chang. Restorative effect of Coriolus versicolor polysaccharides against gamma-irradiation-induced spleen injury in mice Zhongguo, 17 (1996), pp. Yao Li Xue Bao-104.

– Iino Y, Yokoe T, Maemura M, et al. Immunochemotherapies versus chemotherapy as adjuvant treatment after curative resection of operable breast cancer. Anticancer Res. 1995;15:2907–2911.

– Ikuzawa M, Matsunaga K, Nishiyama S, Nakajima S, Kobayashi Y, Andoh T, et al. Fate and distribution of an antitumor protein-bound polysaccharide PSK (Krestin). International Journal of Immunopharmacology 1988;10(4):415-23.

– Imaizumi M, Kondo T, Kamei H, Ichihashi H. Cooperative study on surgical adjuvant immunochemotherapy for prevention of postoperative recurrence of gastric cancer (II). Cooperative study group on surgical adjuvant immunochemotherapy for prevention of postoperative recurrence of gastric cancer supported by the Ministry of Health and Welfare (Kondo’s group) Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 1990;17:2397–2403.

– International Agency for Research on Cancer and Cancer Research UK. World Cancer Factsheet. London: Cancer Research UK 2012.

– Ito K, Nakazato H, Koike A, et al. Long-term effect of 5-fluorouracil enhanced by intermittent administration of polysaccharide K after curative resection of colon cancer. A randomized controlled trial for 7-year follow-up. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2004;19:157–164.

– J Liu, J Zhou Phase II clinical trial for PSP capsules Q Yang, C Kwok (Eds.), PSP International Symposium, Fudan University Press, Hong Kong (1993), pp. 1208-1993.

– JH Schiller, D Harrington, CP Belani Comparison of four chemotherapy regimens for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer N Engl J Med, 346 (2002), pp. 92-98.

– Jin X, Ruiz Beguerie J, Sze DM, Chan GC. Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) for cancer treatment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 6.

– K Hayakawa, N Mitsuhashi, Y Saito Effect of Krestin (PSK) as adjuvant treatment on the prognosis after radical radiotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer Anticancer Res, 13 (1993), pp. 1815-1820.

– K Ogoshi, H Satou, K Isono Possible predictive markers of immunotherapy in esophageal cancer: retrospective analysis of a randomized study Cancer Invest, 13 (1995), pp. 363-369.

– Kanabe S, Tamakuma S, Mimura K, et al. Comparison of immunochemotherapy and chemotherapy of stage IV gastric carcinoma. Gan No Rinsho. 1985;31:1805–1809.

– Kanazawa M, Yoshihara K, Abe H, et al. Effects of Krestin (PSK)™ on T and dendritic cells differentiation in gastric or colorectal cancer patients. Anticancer Res. 2005;25:443–449.

– Kariya Y, Inoue N, Kihara T, et al. Activation of human natural killer cells by the protein-bound polysaccharide Krestin (PSK)™ independently of interferon and interleukin 2. Immunol Lett. 1992;31:241–245.

– Kato M, Hirose K, Hakozaki M, et al. Induction of gene expression for immunomodulating cytokines in peripheral blood mono-nuclear cells in response to orally administered PSK, an immunomodulating protein-bound polysaccharide. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 1995;40:152–156.

– Kidd PM. The use of mushroom glucans and proteoglycans in cancer treatment. Alternative Medicine Review 2000;5(1):4-27.

– Kobayashi H, Matsunaga K, Oguchi Y. Antimetastatic effects of PSK (Krestin), a protein-bound polysaccharide obtained from basidiomycetes: an overview. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention. 1995;4(3):275–281.

– Koda K, Miyazaki M, Sarashina H, et al. A randomized controlled trial of postoperative adjuvant immunochemotherapy for colorectal cancer with oral medicines. Int J Oncol. 2003;23:165–172.

– Kondo T, Sakamoto J, Nakazato H. Alternating immunochem-otherapy of advanced gastric carcinoma: a randomized comparison of carbazilquinone and Krestin (PSK)™ to carbazilquinone in patients with curative gastric resection. Biotherapy. 1991;3:287–295.

– Lindequist U, Niedermeyer TH, Julich WD. The pharmacological potential of mushrooms. Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2005;2(3):285-99.

– Liu F, Fung MC, Ooi VE, Chang ST. Induction in the mouse of gene expression of immunomodulating cytokines by mushroom polysaccharide-protein complexes. Life Sci. 1996;58:1795–1803.

– Lu H, Yang Y, Gad E, et al. Polysaccharide krestin is a novel TLR2 agonist that mediates inhibition of tumor growth via stimulation of CD8 T cells and NK cells. Clinical Cancer Research. 2011;17(1):67–76.

– M Torisu, Y Hayashi, T Ishimitsu. Significant prolongation of disease-free period gained by oral polysaccharide K (PSK) administration after curative surgical operation of colorectal cancer Cancer Immunol Immunother, 31 (1990), pp. 261-268.

– Maehara Y, Moriguchi S, Sakaguchi Y, et al. Adjuvant chemotherapy enhances long-term survival of patients with advanced gastric cancer following curative resection. J Surg Oncol. 1990;45:169–172.

– Maehara Y, Sugimachi K, Akagi M, et al. Early postoperative chemotherapy following noncurative resection for patients with advanced gastric cancer. Br J Cancer. 1992;65:413–416.

– Maehara Y, Tsujitani S, Saeki H, Oki E, Yoshinaga K, Emi Y, et al. Biological mechanism and clinical effect of protein-bound polysaccharide K (KRESTIN(®)): review of development and future perspectives. Surgery Today 2012;42(1):8-28.

– Matsui T, Omura K, Kawakami K, et al. Genotype of thymidylate synthase likely to affect efficacy of adjuvant 5-FU based chemotherapy in colon cancer. Oncol Rep. 2006;16:1111–1115.

– ME Trudeau Docetaxel: a review of its pharmacology and clinical activity Can J, 6 (1996), pp. Oncol-457 MC Bissery Preclinical pharmacology of docetaxel Eur J Cancer, 31A (1995), pp. S1-6.

– Melief CJM. Tumor eradication by adoptive transfer of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Advances in Cancer Research. 1992;58:143–175.

– Mitomi T, Tsuchiya S, Iijima N, et al. Randomized controlled study on adjuvant immunochemotherapy with Krestin (PSK)™ in curatively resected colorectal cancer. The Cooperative Study Group of Surgical Adjuvant Immunochemotherapy for Cancer of Colon and Rectum. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 1989;16:2241–2249.

– Mitomi T, Tsuchiya S, Iijima N, et al. Randomized, controlled study on adjuvant immunochemotherapy with Krestin (PSK)™ in curatively resected colorectal cancer. The Cooperative Study Group of Surgical Adjuvant Immunochemotherapy for Cancer of Colon and Rectum (Kanagawa) Dis Colon Rectum. 1992;35:123–130.

– Mizutani Y, Yoshida O. Activation by the protein-bound polysaccharide Krestin (PSK)™ (Krestin) of cytotoxic lymphocytes that act on fresh autologous tumor cells and T24 human urinary bladder transitional carcinoma cell line in patients with urinary bladder cancer. J Urol. 1991;145:1082–1087.

– MM Yang, Z Chen, JS Kwok. The anti-tumor effect of a small polypeptide from Coriolus versicolor (SPCV) Am J Chin Med, 20 (1992), pp. 221-232.

– Modak S, Koehne G, Vickers A, et al. Rituximab therapy of lymphoma is enhanced by orally administered (1–>3),(1–>4)-D-beta-glucan. Leuk Res. 2005;29:679–683.

– Morimoto T, Ogawa M, Orita K, et al. Postoperative adjuvant randomised trial comparing chemoendocrine therapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy for patients with stage II breast cancer: 5-year results from the nishinihon cooperative study group of adjuvant chemoendocrine therapy for vreast cancer (ACETBC) of Japan. European Journal of Cancer. 1996;32(2):235–242.

– Motzer SA, Tsuji J, Hertig V, Johnston SK, Scanlan J. Natural killer cell cytotoxicity: a methods analysis of 51chromium release versus flow cytometry. Biological Research for Nursing. 2003;5(2):142–152.

– Munemoto Y, Iida Y, Abe J, et al. Significance of postoperative adjuvant immunochemotherapy after curative resection of colorectal cancers: association between host or tumor factors and survival. Int J Oncol. 2002;20:403–411.

– Nakajima T, Inokuchi K, Hattori T, et al. Multi-institutional cooperative study of adjuvant immunochemotherapy in gastric cancer—five-year survival rate. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 1989;16:799–806.

– Nakazato H, Ichihashi H, Kondo T. Clinical results of a randomized controlled trial on the effect of adjuvant immunochemotherapy using Esquinon and Krestin in patients with curatively resected gastric cancer. Cooperative Study Group of Cancer Immunochemotherapy, Tokai Gastrointestinal Oncology Group. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 1986;13:308–318.

– Nakazato H, Koike A, Ichihashi H, et al. An effect of adjuvant immunochemotherapy using Krestin and 5-FU on gastric cancer patients with radical surgery (first report)—a randomized controlled trial by the cooperative study group. Study Group of Immuno-chemotherapy with Krestin (PSK)™ for Gastric Cancer. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 1989;16:2563–2576.

– Nakazato H, Koike A, Saji S, et al. Efficacy of immunochemotherapy as adjuvant treatment after curative resection of gastric cancer. Study Group of Immunochemotherapy with Krestin (PSK)™ for Gastric Cancer. Lancet. 1994;343:1122–1126.

– National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Colorectal cancer: The diagnosis and management of colorectal cancer. CG131 . London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence 2011.

– Ng TB. A review of research on the protein-bound polysaccharide (polysaccharopeptide, PSP) from the mushroom Coriolus versicolor (Basidiomycetes: Polyporaceae). General Pharmacology1998;30(1):1-4.

– Niimoto M, Hattori T, Tamada R, et al. Postoperative adjuvant immunochemotherapy with mitomycin C, futraful and Krestin (PSK)™ for gastric cancer. An analysis of data on 579 patients followed for five years. Jpn J Surg. 1988;18:681–686.

– Nio Y, Shiraishi T, Tsubono M, et al. In vitro immunomodulating effect of protein-bound polysaccharide, Krestin (PSK)™ on peripheral blood, regional nodes, and spleen lymphocytes in patients with gastric cancer. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 1991;32:335–341.

– Nio Y, Tsubono M, Tseng CC, et al. Immunomodulation by orally administered protein-bound polysaccharide Krestin (PSK)™ in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Biotherapy. 1992;4:117–128.

– Ogoshi K. Evaluation of immunotherapy with Krestin (PSK)™ in esophageal cancer. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 1988;15:3143–3151.

– Ogoshi K, Satou H, Isono K, et al. Immunotherapy for esophageal cancer. A randomized trial in combination with radiotherapy and radiochemotherapy. Cooperative Study Group for Esophageal Cancer in Japan. American Journal of Clinical Oncology. 1995;18(3):216–222.

– Ogoshi K, Satou H, Isono K, et al. Possible predictive markers of immunotherapy in esophageal cancer: retrospective analysis of a randomized study. The Cooperative Study Group for Esophageal Cancer in Japan. Cancer Invest. 1995;13:363–369.

– Ogoshi K, Tajima T, Mitomi T, et al. HLA-A2 antigen status-predicts metastasis and response to immunotherapy in gastric cancer. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 1997;45:53–59.

– Ohmura Y, Matsunaga K, Motokawa I, et al. Protective effects of a protein-bound polysaccharide, PSK, on Candida albicans infection in mice via tumor necrosis factor-alpha induction. Int Immunopharmacol. 2001;1:1797–1811.

– Ohwada S, Ikeya T, Yokomori T et al. Adjuvant immunochemotherapy with oral tegafur/uracil plus Krestin (PSK)™ in patients with stage II or III colorectal cancer: a randomised controlled study. Br J Cancer. 2004;90:1003–1010.

– Ohwada S, Kawate S, Ikeya T, et al. Adjuvant therapy with protein-bound polysaccharide K and tegafur uracil in patients with stage II or III colorectal cancer: randomized, controlled trial. Dis Colon Rectum. 2003;46:1060–1068.

88- Ohwada S, Ogawa T, Makita F, et al. Beneficial effects of protein-bound polysaccharide K plus tegafur/uracil in patients with stage II or III colorectal cancer: analysis of immunological parameters. Oncol Rep. 2006;15:861–868.

– Okuzawa M, Shinohara H, Kobayashi T, et al. PSK, a protein-bound polysaccharide, overcomes defective maturation of dendritic cells exposed to tumor-derived factors in vitro. Int J Oncol. 2002;20:1189–1195.

– Ooi VE, Liu F. Immunomodulation and anti-cancer activity of polysaccharide-protein complexes. Curr Med Chem. 2000;7:715–729.

– Osawa S, Shiroto H, Kondo Y, et al. Randomized controlled study on adjuvant immunochemotherapy with carmofur (HCFU) for noncuratively resected and unresected gastric cancer. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 1996;23:327–331.

– PA Bunn, K Kelly. New combinations in the treatment of lung cancer. A time for optimism Chest, 117 (2000), pp. 138S-143S.

– Pandor A, Eggington S, Paisley S, Tappenden P, Sutcliffe P. The clinical and cost-effectiveness of oxaliplatin and capecitabine for the adjuvant treatment of colon cancer: systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technology Assessment 2006; Vol. 10, issue 41:1-185.

– PM Kidd. The use of mushroom glucans and proteoglycans in cancer treatment Altern Med Rev, 5 (2000), pp. 4-27.

– Price LA. Medicinal mushroom-induced activation of macro-phages and splenocytes is mediated by the toll 4 receptor. North American Conference on Complementary and Alternative Medicine.2007.

– Qian ZM, Xu MF, Tang PL. Polysaccharide peptide (PSP) restores immunosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide in rats. Am J Chin Med. 1997;25:27–35.

– Rowan N, Sullivan R. Immunomodulatory activities of mushroom glucans and polysaccharide–Protein complexes in animals and humans (a review). International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 2003;5:95-110.

– Saji S, Sakamoto J, Teramukai S, et al. Impact of splenectomy and immunochemotherapy on survival following gastrectomy for carcinoma: covariate interaction with immunosuppressive acidic protein, a serum marker for the host immune system. Tumor Marker Committee for the Study Group of Immunochemotherapy with Krestin (PSK)™ for Gastric Cancer. Surg Today. 1999;29:504–510.

– Sakamoto J, Koike A, Saji S, et al. Preoperative serum immunosuppressive acidic protein (IAP) test for the prognosis of gastric cancer: a statistical study of the threshold level and evaluation of the effect of the biological response modifier PSK. Surg Today. 1992;22:530–536.

– Sakamoto J, Morita S, Oba K, et al. Efficacy of adjuvant immunochemotherapy with polysaccharide K for patients with curatively resected colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of centrally randomized controlled clinical trials. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2006;55:404–411.

– Sakamoto J, Morita S, Oba K, Matsui T, Kobayashi M, Nakazato H, et al. Meta-Analysis Group of the Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon Rectum. Efficacy of adjuvant immunochemotherapy with polysaccharide K for patients with curatively resected colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of centrally randomized controlled clinical trials. Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII 2006;55(4):404-11.

– Schmidt C. Immune system’s Toll-like receptors have good opportunity for cancer treatment. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006;98:574–575.

– Schmoll HJ, Cartwright T, Tabernero J, Nowacki MP, Figer A, Maroun J, et al. Phase III trial of capecitabine plus oxaliplatin as adjuvant therapy for stage III colon cancer: a planned safety analysis in 1,864 patients. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2007;25(1):102-9.

– Shibata M, Nezu T, Kanou H, et al. Immunomodulatory effects of low dose cis-diaminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin) combined with UFT and Krestin (PSK)™ in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Cancer Invest. 2002;20:166–173.

– Smith JE, Rowan NJ, Sullivan R. Medicinal Mushrooms and Cancer: Their Therapeutic Properties and Current Medical Usage with Special Emphasis on Cancer Treatments. London: Cancer Research UK, 2000.

– Standish LJ, Alschuler LN, Ready AB, et al. Botanical medicine in integrative oncology. In: Abrams DI, Weil AT, editors. Integrat ed Oncology. New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press; 2009. pp. 104–146.

– Standish LJ, Torkelson C, Hamill FA, et al. Immune defects in breast cancer patients after radiotherapy. Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology. 2008;6(3):110–121.

– Standish LJ, Wenner CA, Sweet ES, Bridge C, Nelson A, Martzen M, et al. Trametes versicolor mushroom immune therapy in breast cancer. Journal of the Society of Integrative Oncology2008;6(3):122-8.

– Suck G, Koh MBC. Emerging natural killer cell immunotherapies: large-scale ex vivo production of highly potent anticancer effectors. Hematology. 2010;3(3):135–142.

– Sugimachi K, Inokuchi K, Matsuura H et al. Hormone conditioned cancer chemotherapy for recurrent breast cancer prolongs survival. Jpn J Surg. 1984;14:217–221.

– Sugimachi K, Maehara Y, Ogawa M, et al. Dose intensity of uracil and tegafur in postoperative chemotherapy for patients with poorly differentiated gastric cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1997;40:233–238.

– Sullivan R, Smith JE, Rowan NJ. Medicinal mushrooms and cancer therapy: translating a traditional practice into Western medicine. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 2006;49(2):159-70.

– Takashima S, Kinami Y, Miyazaki I. Clinical effect of post-operative adjuvant immunochemotherapy with the FT-207 suppository and Krestin (PSK)™ in colorectal cancer patients. Colorectal Cancer Chemotherapy Group in Hokuriku. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 1988;15:2229–2236.

– Takahashi Y, Mai M, Nakazato H. Preoperative CEA and PPD values as prognostic factors for immunochemotherapy using Krestin (PSK)™ and 5-FU. Anticancer Res. 2005;25:1377–1384.

– Tamada R, Inokuchi K, Hattori T, et al. A multi-institutional study on postoperative adjuvant immunochemotherapy of gastric cancer (II) Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 1987;14:716–722.

– TC Hsieh, JM Wu. Cell growth and gene modulatory activities of Yunzhi (Windsor Wunxi) from mushroom Trametes versicolor in androgen-dependent and androgen-insensitive human prostate cancer cells Int J Oncol, 18 (2001), pp. 81-88.

– The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration. Review Manager (RevMan). Version 5.3. Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2014.

– Therasse P, Arbuck SG, Eisenhauer EA, Wanders J, Kaplan RS, Rubinstein L, et al. New guidelines to evaluate the response to treatment in solid tumors. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, National Cancer Institute of the United States, National Cancer Institute of Canada. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2000;92(3):205-16.

– Tichatschek E, Zielinski CC, Muller C, et al. Long-term influence of adjuvant therapy on natural killer cell activity in breast cancer. Cancer Immunology Immunotherapy. 1988;27(3):278–282.

– Toge T, Yamaguchi Y. Protein-bound polysaccharide increases survival in resected gastric cancer cases stratified with a preoperative granulocyte and lymphocyte count. Oncol Rep. 2000;7:1157–1161.

– Toi M, Hattori T, Akagi M, et al. Randomized adjuvant trial to evaluate the addition of tamoxifen and Krestin (PSK)™ to chemotherapy in patients with primary breast cancer. 5-Year results from the Nishi-Nippon Group of the Adjuvant Chemoendocrine Therapy for Breast Cancer Organization. Cancer. 1992;70:2475–2483.

– Torisu M, Hayashi Y, Ishimitsu T, et al. Significant prolongation of disease-free period gained by oral polysaccharide K (PSK) administration after curative surgical operation of colorectal cancer. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 1990;31:261–268.

– Tsang KW, Lam CL, Yan C, et al. Coriolus versicolor polysaccharide peptide slows progression of advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Respir Med. 2003;97:618–624.

– Ueda Y, Fujimura T, Kinami S, et al. A randomized phase III trial of postoperative adjuvant therapy with S-1 alone versus S-1 plus Krestin (PSK)™ for stage II/IIIA gastric cancer: Hokuriku-Kinki Immunochemo-Therapy Study Group-Gastric Cancer (HKIT-GC) Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2006;36:519–522.

– Wada T, Iijima H, Sekine F, et al. Effect of Krestin (PSK)™ on Th1/Th2 balance in tumor-bearing mice. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 2003;30:1798–1801.

– WK Lam, KW Tsang, MS Ip. Chemotherapy for advanced (stage III B and stage IV) non-small cell lung cancer: the Hong Kong perspective Respirology, 3 (1998), pp. 145-149.

– XW Mao, JO Archambeau, DS Gridley. Immunotherapy with low-dose interleukin-2 and a polysaccharopeptide derived from Coriolus versicolor Cancer Biother, 11 (1996), pp. Radiopharm-403.

– XW Mao, LM Green, DS Gridley. Evaluation of polysaccharopeptide effects against C6 glioma in combination with radiation Oncology, 61 (2001), pp. 243-253.

– XY Li, JF Wang, PP Zhu. Immune enhancement of a polysaccharides peptides isolated from Coriolus versicolor Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao, 11 (1990), pp. 542-545.

– Y Dong, CY Kwan, ZN Chen. Antitumor effects of a refined polysaccharide peptide fraction isolated from Coriolus versicolor: in vitro and in vivo studies Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol, 92 (1996), pp. 140-148.

– Yagita A, Maruyama S, Wakasugi S, Sukegawa Y. H-2 haplotype-dependent serum IL-12 production in tumor-bearing mice treated with various mycelial extracts. In Vivo. 2002;16:49–54.

– Yamashita K, Ougolkov AV, Nakazato H, et al. Adjuvant immunochemotherapy with protein-bound polysaccharide K for colon cancer in relation to oncogenic beta-catenin activation. Dis Colon Rectum. 2007;50:1169–1181.

– Yamazaki H, Yoshioka Y, Inoue T, et al. Changes in natural killer cell activity by external radiotherapy and/or brachytherapy. Oncology Reports. 2002;9(2):359–363.

– Yang QY. Yun Zhi polysaccharopeptide (PSP) and the general aspects of its research. Fung Sci. 1997;12:1–8.

– Yefenof E, Gafanovitch I, Oron E, et al. Prophylactic intervention in radiation-leukemia-virus-induced murine lymphoma by the biological response modifier polysaccharide K. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 1995;41:389–396.

– Yeung JH, Or PM. Polysaccharide peptides from Coriolus versicolor competitively inhibit model cytochrome P450 enzyme probe substrates metabolism in human liver microsomes. Phytomedicine 2012;19(5):457-63.

– Yokoe T, Iino Y, Takei H, et al. HLA antigen as predictive index for the outcome of breast cancer patients with adjuvant immunochemotherapy with PSK. Anticancer Res. 1997;17:2815–2818.

– Yoshino S, Oka M, Hazama S, Suzuki T. Effect of intrapleural and/or intraperitoneal lentinan therapy in carcinomatous pleuritis and peritonitis. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 1990;17:1588–1591.

– Zaidman BZ, Yassin M, Mahajna J, Wasser SP. Medicinal mushroom modulators of molecular targets as cancer therapeutics. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2005;67(4):453–468.

– ZM Qian, MF Xu, PL Tang. Polysaccharide peptide (PSP) restores immunosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide in rats Am J Chin Med, 25 (1997), pp. 27-35.

References for Hericium Erinaceus

– A. Allen and G. Flemström, “Gastroduodenal mucus bicarbonate barrier: protection against acid and pepsin,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 288, no. 1, pp. C1–C19, 2005.

– A.V. Avtonomova, A.V. Bakanov, M.I. Shuktueva, V.A. Vinokurov, O.V. Popova, A.I. Usov, et al. Submerged cultivation and chemical composition of Hericium erinaceus mycelium Antibiot Khimioter, 57 (2012), pp. 7-11.

– Abdel-Salam OME, Czimmer J, Debreceni A, Szolcsányi J, Mózsik G. Gastric mucosal integrity: gastric mucosal blood flow and microcirculation. An overview. Journal of Physiology Paris. 2001;95(1–6):105–127.

– Abdulla MA, Ahmed KA-A, Al-Bayaty FH, Masood Y. Gastroprotective effect of Phyllanthus niruri leaf extract against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2010;4(5):226–230.

– Abdulla MA, Noor SM, Sabaratnam V, Abdullah N, Wong K-H, Ali HM. Effect of culinary-medicinal lion’s mane mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae), on ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms. 2008;10(4):325–330.

– Agarwal M., Srivastava V. K., Saxena K. K., Kumar A. Hepatoprotective activity of Beta vulgaris against CCl4-induced hepatic injury in rats. Fitoterapia. 2006;77(2):91–93. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2005.11.004.

– Ajith TA, Janardhanan KK. Antioxidant and antiinfammatory activities of methanol extract of Phellinus rimosus. Indian J Exp Biol. 2001;39:1166–9.

– Ajith TA, Janardhanan KK. Antioxidant and antihepatotoxic activities of Phellinus rimosus (Berk) Pilat. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;81:387–91.

– Ajith TA, Janardhanan KK. Chemopreventive activity of a macrofungus Phellinus rimosus against N=nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rat. J Exp Ther Oncol. 2006;5:309–21.

– Ajith TA, Janardhanan KK. Cytotoxic and antitumor activities of a polypore macrofungus, Phellinus rimosus (Berk) Pilat. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;84:157–62.

– Akihisa T, Franzblau SG, Tokuda H, Tagata M. Antitubercular activity and inhibitory effect on Epstein-Barr virus activation of sterols and polyisoprenepolyols from an edible mushroom, Hypsizigus marmoreus. Biol Pharm Bull. 2005;28:1117–9.

– Akopova O.V., Kolchynskayia L.Y., Nosar V.Y., Smyrnov A.N., Malisheva M.K., Man’kovskaia Y.N., Sahach V.F. The effect of permeability transition pore opening on reactive oxygen species production in rat brain mitochondria. Ukr. Biokhim. Zh. (1999) 2011;83:46–55.

– Al-Fatimi M. A. A., Jülich W.-., Jansen R., Lindequist U. Bioactive components of the traditionally used mushroom Podaxis pistillaris. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2006;3(1):87–92. doi: 10.1093/ecam/nek008.

– Allen A, Flemström G. Gastroduodenal mucus bicarbonate barrier: protection against acid and pepsin. American Journal of Physiology. 2005;288(1):C1–C19.

– Alqasoumi S, Al-Yahya M, Al-Howiriny T, Rafatullah S. Gastroprotective effect of radish “Raphanus sativus” L. on experimental gastric ulcer models in rats. Farmacia. 2008;56(2):204–214.

– Arafa HMM, Sayed-Ahmed MM. Protective role of carnitine esters against alcohol-induced gastric lesions in rats. Pharmacological Research. 2003;48(3):285–290.

– Arya R, Mallik M, Lakhotia SC. Heat shock genes—integrating cell survival and death. Journal of Biosciences. 2007;32(3):595–610.

– B. Liang, Z. Guo, F. Xie, A. Zhao Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activities of aqueous extract of Hericium erinaceus in experimental diabetic rats BMC Complement Altern Med, 13 (2013), p. 253.

– B. M. Peskar, “Role of cyclooxygenase isoforms in gastric mucosal defence,” Journal of Physiology Paris, vol. 95, no. 1–6, pp. 3–9, 2001.

– B. Thongbai, S. Rapior, K.D. Hyde, K. Wittstein, M. Stadler Hericium erinaceus, an amazing medicinal mushroom Mycol Prog, 14 (2015), pp. 1-23.

– B.Z. Zaidman, M. Yassin, J. Mahajna, S.P. Wasser Medicinal mushroom modulators of molecular targets as cancer therapeutics Appl Microbiol Biot, 67 (2005), pp. 453-468.

– Badger AM. Developments in Industrial Microbiology. In: Sarasota FL, Nash CH, Underkofler LA, editors. Proceedings of the Fortieth General Meeting of the Society for Industrial Microbiology. Vol. 25. Arlington VA: 1983. p. 274.

– Baldi E., Burra P., Plebani M., Salvagnini M. Serum malondialdehyde and mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase activity as markers of chronic alcohol intake and alcoholic liver disease. Italian Journal of Gastroenterology. 1993;25(8):429–432.

– Barasi M. Human Nutrition : A Health Perspective. London: Arnold; 2003.

– Barbisan L.F, Spinardi-Barbisan ALS, Moreira ELT, Salvadori DMF, Ribeiro LR, Eira AF. Agaricus blazei (Himematsutake) does not alter the development of rat diethylnitrosamine-initiated hepatic preneoplastic foci. Cancer Sci. 2003;94:188–92.

– Barros L, Ferreira IC, Baptista P. Phenolics and antioxidant activity of mushroom leucopaxillus giganteus mycelium at different carbon sources. Food Sci Technol Int. 2008;14:47–55.

– Battle J, Ha TZ, Li CF. Ligand binding to the (1-3)-beta-D-glucan receptor stimulates NF-kappa B activation, but not apoptosis in U937 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Comm. 1998;249:499–504.

– Bellini MF, Giacomini NL, Eira AF, Ribeiro LR, Mantovani MS. Anticlastogenic effect of aqueous extracts of Agaricus blazei on CHO k1 cells, studying different developmental phases of the mushroom. Toxicol In Vitro. 2003;17:465–9.

– Bender S, Dumitrache CN, Backhaus J, Christie G, Cross RF, Lonergan GT. A case for caution in assessing the antibiotic activity of extracts of culinary-medicinal Shiitake mushroom [Lentinus edodes(Berk.)Singer] (Agaricomycetidae) Int J Med Mushrooms. 2003;5:31–5.

– Bensky D, Gamble A. Chinese Materia Medica. 2nd ed. Seattle: Eastland Press; 1993.

– Bermejo-Pareja F., Llamas-Velasco S., Villarejo-Galende A. Alzheimer’s disease prevention: A way forward. Rev. Clin. Esp. 2016;65:1100–1108. doi: 10.1016/j.rceng.2016.06.006.

– Bernardi P., Rasola A. Calcium and cell death: The mitochondrial connection. Subcell. Biochem. 2007;45:481–506.

– Bijalani RL. Physiology of aging. In: Bijlani RL, editor. Understanding Medical Physiology. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publications Private Ltd; 1995. pp. 38–42.

– Bilay V, Beregova T, Kukharskyy V, et al. The influence of culinary-medicinal mushrooms: Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus on injuries of gastric mucosa in rats evoked by stress. Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products; October, 2011; Arcachon, France. pp. 306–311.

– Bobek P, Galbavý S. Hypocholesterolemic and antiatherogenic effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) in rabbits. Nahrung. 1999;43:339–42.

– Bohn JA, BeMiller JN. (1-3)-β-D-Glucans as biological response modifiers: A review of structure-functional activity relationships. Carbohydr Polym. 1995;28:3–14.

– Bolton JP, Palmer D, Cohen MM. Stimulation of mucus and nonparietal cell secretion by the E2 prostaglandins. American Journal of Digestive Diseases. 1978;23(4):359–364.

– Breene W. Nutritional and medicinal value of speciality mushrooms. J Food Prod Mark. 1990;53:883–94.

– C. L. Cheng and M. W. L. Koo, “Effects of Centella asiatica on ethanol induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats,” Life Sciences, vol. 67, no. 21, pp. 2647–2653, 2000.

– C. Ying, Y. Xu, and Y. Wang, Icons of Medicinal Fungi from China, Crc Pr I Llc, Beijing, China, 1987.

– Cadirci E, Suleyman H, Aksoy H, et al. Effects of Onosma armeniacum root extract on ethanol-induced oxidative stress in stomach tissue of rats. Chemico-Biological Interactions. 2007;170(1):40–48.

– Carter J. Food: Your Miracle Medicine. New York: Harper Collins Publishers Inc; 1999.

– Chang C.H., Chen Y., Yew X.X., Chen H.X., Kim J.X., Chang C.C., Peng C.C., Peng R.Y. Improvement of erinacine a productivity in Hericium erinaceus mycelia and its neuroprotective bioactivity against the glutamate-insulted apoptosis. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 2016;65:1100–1108. doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2015.08.014.

– Chang ST. Global impact edible and medicinal mushrooms on human welfare in the 21st century: Non green evolution. Int J Med Mushrooms. 1999;1:1–7.

– Chang ST, Miles PG. Mushrooms biology-a new discipline. Mycologist. 1992;6:64–5.

– Chemicals D. OECD Guideline for Testing of Chemicals. 2005.

– Chen S. Anti-aromatase activity of phytochemicals in white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) Cancer Res. 2006;66:12026–34.

– Cheng CL, Koo MWL. Effects of Centella asiatica on ethanol induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats. Life Sciences. 2000;67(21):2647–2653.

– Cheng J.H., Tsai C.L., Lien Y.Y., Lee M.S., Sheu S.C. High molecular weight of polysaccharides from Hericium erinaceus against amyloid β-induced neurotoxicity. BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2016;16:170–179. doi: 10.1186/s12906-016-1154-5.

– Cheriyan J., Balsara R.D., Hansen K.B., Castellino F.J. Pharmacology of triheteromeric N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. Neurosci. Lett. 2016;617:240–246. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2016.02.032.

– Chihara G. Immunopharmacology of Lentinan, a polysaccharide isolated from Lentinus edodes: Its applications as a host defence potentiator. Int J Orient Med. 1992;17:57–77.

– Chihara G, Chihara G, Hamuro J, Maeda YY, Arai Y, Fukuoka F. Fractionation and purification of the polysaccharides with marked antitumour activity especially leninan from Lentinun edodes. Cancer Res. 1970;30:2776–81.

– Chye FY, Wong JY, Lee JS. Nutritional quality and antioxidant activity of selected edible wild mushrooms. Food Sci Technol Int. 2008;14:375–84.

– Collins RA, Ng TB. Polysaccharopeptide from Coriolus versicolor has potential for use against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection, Life Sci. 1997;60:383–7.

– Cooper E. L. The immune system and complementary and alternative medicine. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2007;4(1):5–8. doi: 10.1093/ecam/nem093.

– D. Chemicals, OECD Guideline for Testing of Chemicals, 2005.

– D. Das, D. Bandyopadhyay, M. Bhattacharjee, and R. K. Banerjee, “Hydroxyl radical is the major causative factor in stress-induced gastric ulceration,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 8–18, 1997.

– D.J. Meyerhoff, A. Mon, T. Metzler, T.C. Neylan Cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate in posttraumatic stress disorder and their relationships to self-reported sleep quality Sleep, 37 (2014), pp. 893-900.

– D.R. Bhandari, T. Shen, A. Rompp, H. Zorn, B. Spengler Analysis of cyathane-type diterpenoids from Cyathus striatus and Hericium erinaceus by high-resolution MALDI MS imaging Anal Bioanal Chem, 406 (2014), pp. 695-704.

– D.T. Wu, W.Z. Li, J. Chen, Q.X. Zhong, Y.J. Ju, J. Zhao, et al. An evaluation system for characterization of polysaccharides from the fruiting body of Hericium erinaceus and identification of its commercial product Carbohydr Polym, 124 (2015), pp. 201-207.

– Dai YC, Xu MQ. Studies on the medicinal polypore, Phellinus baumii, and its kin, P. linteus. Mycotaxon. 1998;67:191–200.

– Das D, Bandyopadhyay D, Bhattacharjee M, Banerjee RK. Hydroxyl radical is the major causative factor in stress-induced gastric ulceration. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 1997;23(1):8–18.

– Dawnay A., Millar D. J. The pathogenesis and consequences of AGE formation in uraemia and its treatment. Cellular and Molecular Biology. 1998;44(7):1081–1094.

– de Lima Alves PL, Delmanto RD, Sugui MM, da Eira AF, Salvadori DM, Speit G. Letinula edodes(Berk.) Pegler (Shiitake) modulates genotoxic and mutagenic effects induced by alkylating agents in vivo. Mutat Res. 2001;496:23–32.

– Devita VT, Rosenberg SA, Hellman S. Cancer: Principles and practice of oncology. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 1993. pp. 273–4.

– D’Hooge R., de Deyn P.P. Applications of the morris water maze in the study of learning and memory. Brain Res. Rev. 2001;36:60–90. doi: 10.1016/S0165-0173(01)00067-4.

– Dulger B, Ergul CC, Gucin F. Antimicrobial activity of the macrofungus Lepista nuda. Fitoterapia. 2002;73:695–7.

– E. Cadirci, H. Suleyman, H. Aksoy et al., “Effects of Onosma armeniacum root extract on ethanol-induced oxidative stress in stomach tissue of rats,” Chemico-Biological Interactions, vol. 170, no. 1, pp. 40–48, 2007.

– E. Malinowska, W. Krzyczkowski, G. Lapienis, F. Herold Improved simultaneous production of mycelial biomass and polysaccharides by submerged culture of Hericium erinaceum: optimization using a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol, 36 (12) (2009), pp. 1513-1527.

– E. T. Nartey, M. Ofosuhene, W. Kudzi et al., “Antioxidant and gastric cytoprotective prostaglandins properties of Cassia sieberiana roots bark extract as an anti-ulcerogenic agent,” BBMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 12, article 65, 2012.

– F. Cui, X. Gao, J. Zhang, M. Liu, C. Zhang, N. Xu, et al. Protective effects of extracellular and intracellular polysaccharides on hepatotoxicity by Hericium erinaceus SG-02 Curr Microbiol, 73 (2016), pp. 379-385.

– F.J. Cui, Y.H. Li, X.Y. Zan, Y. Yang, W.J. Sun, J.Y. Qian, et al. Purification and partial characterization of a novel hemagglutinating glycoprotein from the cultured mycelia of Hericium erinaceus Process Biochem, 49 (2014), pp. 1362-1369.

– F. Teng, T. Bito, S. Takenaka, Y. Yabuta, F. Watanabe Vitamin B12[c-lactone], a biologically inactive corrinoid compound, occurs in cultured and dried lion’s mane mushroom (Hericium erinaceus) fruiting bodies J Agric Food Chem, 62 (2014), pp. 1726-1732.

– Faccin LC, Benati F, Rincão VP, Mantovani MS. Antiviral activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts and of an isolated polysaccharide from Agaricus brasiliensis against poliovirus type 1, Lett Appl Microbiol. 2007;45:24–8. – Feissner R.F., Skalska J., Gaum W.E., Sheu S.S. Crosstalk signaling between mitochondrial Ca2+ and ROS. Front. Biosci. 2009;14:1197–1218. doi: 10.2741/3303.

– Farkas E., Luiten P.G.M. Cerebral microvascular pathology in aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Prog. Neurobiol. 2001;64:575–611. doi: 10.1016/S0301-0082(00)00068-X.

– Fernández-Checa J. C., García-Ruiz C., Colell A., et al. Oxidative stress: role of mitochondria and protection by glutathione. BioFactors. 1998;8(1-2):7–11. doi: 10.1002/biof.5520080102.

– Fernandez-Checa J. C., Hirano T., Tsukamoto H., Kaplowitz N. Mitochondrial glutathione depletion in alcoholic liver disease. Alcohol. 1993;10(6):469–475. doi: 10.1016/0741-8329(93)90067-X.

– Fridovich I. The biology of oxygen radicals. Science. 1978;201(4359):875–880.

– Friedman M. Chemistry, nutrition, and health-promoting properties of Hericium erinaceus (lion’s mane) mushroom fruiting bodies and mycelia and their bioactive compounds. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2015;63:7108–7123. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.5b02914.

– G. L. M. I. Kauffman Jr. Grossman, “Prostaglandin and cimetidine inhibit the formation of ulcers produced by parenteral salicylates,” Gastroenterology, vol. 75, no. 6, pp. 1099–1102, 1978.

– G. P. Garg, S. K. Nigam, and C. W. Ogle, “The gastric antiulcer effects of the leaves of the neem tree,” Planta Medica, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 215–217, 1993.

– García-Ruiz C., Morales A., Ballesta A., Rodés J., Kaplowitz N., Fernández-Checa J. C. Effect of chronic ethanol feeding on glutathione and functional integrity of mitochondria in periportal and perivenous rat hepatocytes. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 1994;94(1):193–201. doi: 10.1172/JCI117306.

– Garg GP, Nigam SK, Ogle CW. The gastric antiulcer effects of the leaves of the neem tree. Planta Medica. 1993;59(3):215–217.

– Golbabapour S, Gwaram NS, Al-Obaidi MMJ, et al. Schiffbase metal derivatives enhance the expression of HSP70 and suppress BAX proteins in prevention of acute gastric lesion. BioMed Research International. In press.

– Golbabapour S, Gwaram NS, Hassandarvish P, et al. Gastroprotection studies of schiff base zinc (II) derivative complex against acute superficial hemorrhagic mucosal lesions in rats. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(9)e75036.

– Golbabapour S, Hajrezaie M, Hassandarvish P, et al. Acute toxicity and gastroprotective role of M. Pruriens in ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injuries in rats. BioMed Research International. 2013;2013:13 pages.974185.

– Grube BJ, Eng ET, Kao YC, Kwon A, Chen S. White button mushroom phytochemicals inhibit aromatase activity and breast cancer cell proliferation. J Nutr. 2001;131:3288–93.

– Gu YH, Gowsala S. Cytotoxic effect of oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus on human androgen-independent prostate cancer PC-3 Cells. J Med Food. 2006;9:196–204.

– Gunde Cimmerman N, Freidrich J, Cimmerman A, Benicki N. Screening fungi for the production of an inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase, production of mevinolin by the fungi of the genus Pleurotus. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1993;111:203–6.

– Gunde-Cimmerman N. Medicinal value of the genus Pleurotus (Fr.) P. Kaest. (Agaricales s.l., Basidiomycetes) Int J Med Mushrooms. 1999;1:69–80.

– Gyamfi M. A., Wan Y. Y. Pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease: the role of nuclear receptors. Experimental Biology and Medicine. 2010;235(5):547–560. doi: 10.1258/ebm.2009.009249.

– H. M. M. Arafa and M. M. Sayed-Ahmed, “Protective role of carnitine esters against alcohol-induced gastric lesions in rats,” Pharmacological Research, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 285–290, 2003.

– H.M. Shang, H. Song, L.N. Wang, B. Wu, G.D. Ding, Y.Y. Jiang, et al. Effects of dietary polysaccharides from the submerged fermentation concentrate of Hericium caput-medusae (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. on performance, gut microflora, and cholesterol metabolism in broiler chickens Livest Sci, 167 (2014), pp. 276-285.

– H.P. Zhou, W.L. Liou, Q.H. Chen, S.R. Wang Antiageing effect of Hericium erinaceus polysaccharides J China Pharm Univ, 22 (1991), pp. 86-88.

– H. Xu, P.R. Wu, Z.Y. Shen, X.D. Chen Chemical analysis of Hericium erinaceum polysaccharides and effect of the polysaccharides on derma antioxidant enzymes, MMP-1, and TIMP-1 activities Int J Biol Macromol, 47 (2010), pp. 33-36.

– H.Y. Tang, X. Yin, C.C. Zhang, Q. Jia, J.M. Gao Structure diversity, synthesis, and biological activity of cyathane diterpenoids in higher fungi Curr Med Chem, 22 (2015), pp. 2375-23791.

– Hall A.M., Roberson E.D. Mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease. Brain Res. Bull. 2012;88:3–12. doi: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2011.11.017.

– Halliwell B, Cross CE. Oxygen derived species: Their relation to human disease and environmental stress. Environ Health Perspect. 1994;102:5–12.

– Han C., Guo J. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity of traditional Chinese herb pairs, Angelica sinensis and Sophora flavescens. Inflammation. 2012;35(3):913–919. doi: 10.1007/s10753-011-9393-6.

– Hariprasath L, Raman J, Nanjian R. Gastroprotective effect of Senecio candicans DC on experimental ulcer models. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2012;140(1):145–150.

– Hasler CM. Functional food : The western prospective. Nutr Rev. 1996;54:506–10.

– Hawksworth DL. Mushrooms: The extent of the unexplored potential. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2001;3:333–7.

– Hemnani T, Parihar MS. Reactive oxygen species and oxidative DNA damage. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1998;42:440–52.

– Hirasawa M, Shouji N, Neta T, Fukushima K, Takada K. Three kinds of antibacterial substances from Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing. (Shiitake, an edible mushroom) Int J Antimicrob Agents. 1999;11:151–7.

– Hobbs C. Medicinal Mushrooms: An Exploitation of Tradition, Healing and Culture. Santa Cruz: Botanica Press; 1995.

– Hobbs C. Medicinal value of Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing. (Agaricomycetideae). A literature review. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2000;2:287–302.

– Hu S., Wang D., Zhang J., Du M., Cheng Y., Liu Y., Zhang N., Wang D., Wu Y. Mitochondria related pathway is essential for polysaccharides purified from Sparassis crispa mediated neuro-protection against glutamate-induced toxicity in differentiated PC12 cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016;17 doi: 10.3390/ijms17020133.

– Huh K, Kwon TH, Shin US, et al. Inhibitory effects of DA-9601 on ethanol-induced gastrohemorrhagic lesions and gastric xanthine oxidase activity in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2003;88(2-3):269–273.

– I. F. Ismail, S. Golbabapour, P. Hassandarvish et al., “Gastroprotective activity of Polygonum chinenseaqueous leaf extract on ethanol-induced hemorrhagic mucosal lesions in rats,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2012, Article ID 404012, 9 pages, 2012.

– I. Fridovich, “The biology of oxygen radicals,” Science, vol. 201, no. 4359, pp. 875–880, 1978.

– I. I. Peleg and C. M. Wilcox, “The role of eicosanoids, cyclooxygenases, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in colorectal tumorigenesis and chemoprevention,” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 117–125, 2002.

– Ismail IF, Golbabapour S, Hassandarvish P, et al. Gastroprotective activity of Polygonum chinenseaqueous leaf extract on ethanol-induced hemorrhagic mucosal lesions in rats. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2012;2012:9 pages.404012.

– Itoh YH, Noguchi R. Pre-treatment with mild whole-body heating prevents gastric ulcer induced by restraint and water-immersion stress in rats. International Journal of Hyperthermia. 2000;16(2):183–191.

–  J.C. Wang, S.H. Hu, J.T. Wang, K.S. Chen, Y.C. Chia Hypoglycemic effect of extract of Hericium erinaceus J Sci Food Agric, 85 (2005), pp. 641-646.

– J.E. Ramberg, E.D. Nelson, R.A. Sinnott Immunomodulatory dietary polysaccharides: a systematic review of the literature Nutr J, 9 (2010), p. 54.

– J.L. Li, L. Lu, C.C. Dai, K. Chen, J.Y. Qiu A comparative study on sterols of ethanol extract and water extract from Hericium erinaceus Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, 26 (2001), pp. 831-834.

– J. L. Wallace, “Recent advances in gastric ulcer therapeutics,” Current Opinion in Pharmacology, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 573–577, 2005.

– J. P. Bolton, D. Palmer, and M. M. Cohen, “Stimulation of mucus and nonparietal cell secretion by the E2 prostaglandins,” American Journal of Digestive Diseases, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 359–364, 1978.

– J. R. Pleis and J. W. Lucas, “Summary health statistics for U.S. Adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2007,” Vital Health Statistics, vol. 10, no. 240, pp. 1–159, 2009.

– J.S. Lee, K.M. Min, J.Y. Cho, E.K. Hong Study of macrophage activation and structural characteristics of purified polysaccharides from the fruiting body of Hericium erinaceus J Microbiol Biotechnol, 19 (2009), pp. 951-959.

– J. S. Schiller, J. W. Lucas, B. W. Ward et al., “Summary health statistics for U.S. Adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2010,” Vital Health Statistics, vol. 10, no. 252, pp. 1–207, 2012.

– J. Wu, T. Tokunaga, M. Kondo, K. Ishigami, S. Tokuyama, T. Suzuki, et al. Erinaceolactones A to C, from the culture broth of Hericium erinaceus J Nat Prod, 78 (2015), pp. 155-158.

– J. Yamahara, M. Mochizuki, H. Q. Rong, H. Matsuda, and H. Fujimura, “The anti-ulcer effect in rats of ginger constituents,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 23, no. 2-3, pp. 299–304, 1988.

– Jong SC, Birmingham JM. Medicinal benefits of the mushroom Ganoderma. Adv Appl Microbiol. 1992;37:101–34.

– Jose N, Ajith TA, Janardhanan KK. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities of culinary medicinal mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quel. (Agaricomycetideae) Int J Med Mushrooms. 2002;4:329–35.

– Jones S, Janardhanan KK. Antioxidant and antitumor activity of Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst.-Reishi (Aphyllophoromycetideae) from South India. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2000;2:195–200.

– Jose N, Janardhanan KK. Antioxidant and antitumor activity of Pleurotus florida. Curr Sci. 2000;79:941–3.

– K. A. Ketuly, A. H. A. Hadi, S. Golbabapour et al., “Acute toxicity and gastroprotection studies with a newly synthesized steroid,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 3, Article ID e59296, 2013.

– K. A. Rony, J. Mathew, P. P. Neenu, and K. K. Janardhanan, “Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst occurring in South India attenuates gastric ulceration in rats,” Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 19–27, 2011.

– K.F. Lee, J.H. Chen, C.C. Teng, C.H. Shen, M.C. Hsieh, C.C. Lu, et al. Protective effects of Hericium erinaceus mycelium and its isolated erinacine A against ischemia-injury-induced neuronal cell death via the inhibition of iNOS/p38 MAPK and nitrotyrosine Int J Mol Sci, 15 (2014), pp. 15073-15089.

– K.H. Wong, M. Naidu, P. David et al., “Peripheral nerve regeneration following crush injury to rat peroneal nerve by aqueous extract of medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr) Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae),” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2011, Article ID 580752, 2011.

– K.H. Wong, S. Vikineswary, N. Abdullah, M. Naidu, and R. Keynes, “Activity of aqueous extracts of lion’s mane mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae) on the neural cell line NG108-15,” International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 57–65, 2007.

– K. H. Wong, V. Sabaratnam, N. Abdullah, U. R. Kuppusamy, and M. Naidu, “Effects of cultivation techniques and processing on antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Hericium erinaceus (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. extracts,” Food Technology and Biotechnology, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 47–55, 2009.

– K. Huh, T. H. Kwon, U. S. Shin et al., “Inhibitory effects of DA-9601 on ethanol-induced gastrohemorrhagic lesions and gastric xanthine oxidase activity in rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 88, no. 2-3, pp. 269–273, 2003.

– K. Wang, L. Bao, Q. Qi, F. Zhao, K. Ma, Y. Pei, et al. Erinacerins C-L, isoindolin-1-ones with α-glucosidase inhibitory activity from cultures of the medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus J Nat Prod, 78 (2015), pp. 146-154.

– Karaman I, Sahin F, Güllüce M, Ogütçü H, Sengül M, Adigüzel A. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of Juniperus oxycedrus L. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;85:213–35.

– Karbowski M., Neutzner A. Neurodegeneration as a consequence of failed mitochondrial maintenance. Acta Neuropathol. 2012;123:157–171. doi: 10.1007/s00401-011-0921-0.

– Kauffman Jr. Grossman GLMI. Prostaglandin and cimetidine inhibit the formation of ulcers produced by parenteral salicylates. Gastroenterology. 1978;75(6):1099–1102.

– Kawagishi H, Ryuichi RI, Kanao T, Keishiro TM, Hitoshi S, Hagiwara IT, et al. Fractionation and antitumor activity of the water-insoluble residue of Agaricus blazei fruiting bodies. Carbohydr Res. 1989;186:267–73.

– Ketuly KA, Hadi AHA, Golbabapour S, et al. Acute toxicity and gastroprotection studies with a newly synthesized steroid. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(3)e59296.

– Khatun K, Mahtab H, Khanam PA, Sayeed MA, Khan KA. Oyster mushroom reduced blood glucose and cholesterol in diabetic subjects. Mymensingh Med J. 2007;16:94–9.

– Kim GY, Kim SH, Hwang SY, Kim HY, Park YM, Park SK, et al. Oral administration of proteoglycan isolated from Phellinus linteus in the prevention and treatment of collagen-induced arthritis in mice. Biol Pharm Bull. 2003;26:823–31.

– Kim GY, Park HS, Nam BH, Lee SJ, Lee JD. Purification and characterization of acidic proteo-heteroglycan from the fruiting body of Phellinus linteus (Berk. and M.A. Curtis) Teng. Bioresour Technol. 2003;89:81–7.

– Kim HW, Kim BK. Biomedicinal triterperoids of Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.:Fr.) P. Karst. (Aphyllophoromycetideae) Int J Med Mushrooms. 1999;1:121–38.

– Kino K, Sone T, Watanabe J. Immunomodulator, LZ-8, prevents antibody production in mice. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1991;13:1109–15.

– Komoda Y, Shimizu M, Sonoda Y, Sato Y. Ganoderic acid and its derivatives as cholesterol synthesis inhibitors. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1989;37:531–3.

– Konno S, Aynehchi S, Dolin DJ, Schwartz AM, Choudhury MS, Tazakin HN. Anticancer and hypoglycemic effects of polysaccharides in edible and medicinal Maitake mushroom [Grifola frondosa(Dicks.:Fr.) S.F.Gray] Int J Med Mushrooms. 2002;4:185–95.

– Kurashiga S, Akuzawa Y, Eudo F. Effects of Lentinus edodes, Grifola frondosa and Pleurotus ostreatusadministration on cancer outbreaks and activities of macrophages and lymphocytes in mice treated with a carcinogen. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1997;19:175–85.

– L. Barros, T. Cruz, P. Baptista, L.M. Estevinho, I.C. Ferreira Wild and commercial mushrooms as source of nutrients and nutraceuticals Food Chem Toxicol, 46 (2008), pp. 2742-2747.

– L. Hariprasath, J. Raman, and R. Nanjian, “Gastroprotective effect of Senecio candicans DC on experimental ulcer models,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 140, no. 1, pp. 145–150, 2012.

– L. Lu, J. Li, and Y. Cang, “PCR-based sensitive detection of medicinal fungi hericium species from ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 975–980, 2002.

– L. Saing, Y.C. Wei, C.J. Tseng Ergothioneine represses inflammation and dysfunction in human endothelial cells exposed to oxidized low-density lipoprotein Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol, 43 (7) (2016).

– Laight D. W., Gunnarsson P. T., Kaw A. V., Änggård E. E., Carrier M. J. Physiological microassay of plasma total antioxidant status in a model of endothelial dysfunction in the rat following experimental oxidant stress in vivo. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. 1999;7(1):27–31. doi: 10.1016/S1382-6689(98)00046-5.

– Lakshmi B, Tilak JC, Adhikari S, Devasagayam TP, Janardhanan KK. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of selected Indian mushrooms. Pharm Biol. 2004;42:179–85.

– Lam SK, Ng TB. Hypsin, A novel thermostable ribosome inactivating protein with antifungal and antiproliferative activities from fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Hypsizigus marmoreus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;285:1071–5.

– Lam YW, Ng TB, Wang HX. Antiproliferative and antimitogenic activities in a peptide from puffball mushroom Calvatia caelata. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;289:744–9.

– Lee HJ, Lim ES, Ahn KS, Shim BS, Kim HM, Gong SJ, et al. Cambodian Phellinus linteus inhibits experimental metastasis of melanoma cells in mice via regulation of urokinase type plasminogen activator. Biol Pharm Bull. 2005;28:27–31.

– Lee I.K., Yun B.S., Kim J.P., Ryoo I.J., Kim Y.H., Yoo I.D. Neuroprotective activity of p-terphenyl leucomentins from the mushroom Paxillus panuoides. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 2003;67:1813–1816. doi: 10.1271/bbb.67.1813.

– Lee JW, Chung CH, Jeong H, Lee KH. Effects of alkali extract of Ganoderma lucidum IY007 on complement andres. Korean J Mycol. 1990;18:137–44.

– Lee YS, Kang YH, Jung JY, Lee S, Ohuchi K, Shin KH, et al. Protein glycation inhibitors from the fruiting body of Phellinus linteus. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008;31:1968–72.

– Lentinan Akoi T. In: Immunology Studies: Immune modulation agents and their mechanisms. Femchel RL, Chirgis MA, editors. Vol. 25. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc; 1984. pp. 62–77.

– Li W., Cheong Y.K., Wang H., Ren G., Yang Z. Neuroprotective effects of etidronate and 2,3,3-trisphosphonate against glutamate-induced toxicity in PC12 cells. Neurochem. Res. 2015;41:844–854. doi: 10.1007/s11064-015-1761-4.

– Lin ZB. Focus on anti-oxidative and free radical scavening activity of Ganoderma lucidum. J Appl Pharmacol. 2004;12:133–7.

– Lindequist U., Niedermeyer T. H. G., Jülich W.-D. The pharmacological potential of mushrooms. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2005;2(3):285–299. doi: 10.1093/ecam/neh107.

– Lindequist U, Teuscher E, Narbe G. Neue Wirkstoffe aus Basidiomyceten. Z Phytother. 1990;11:139–49.

– Liu GT. Recent advances in research of pharmacology and Clinical application of Ganoderma (P. Karst) species (Aphyllophoromycetideae) in China. Int J Med Mushrooms. 1999;1:63–7.

– Liu Z., Li P., Zhao D., Tang H., Guo J. Protection by vanadium, a contemporary treatment approach to both diabetes and focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Biological Trace Element Research. 2012;145(1):66–70. doi: 10.1007/s12011-011-9168-9.

– Loganathan KJ, Venkatakrishnan V, Shenbhagaraman R, Kaviyarasan V. Comparitive study on the antioxidant, anticancer and antimicrobial property of Agaricus bisporus (J. E.Lange) Imbach before and after boiling. Afr J Biotechnol. 2009;8:654–61.

– Lu L, Li J, Cang Y. PCR-based sensitive detection of medicinal fungi hericium species from ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2002;25(8):975–980.

– Lu TL, Huang GJ, Lu TJ, Wu JB, Wu CH, Yang TC, et al. Hispolon from Phellinus linteus has antiproliferative effects via MDM2-recruited ERK1/2 activity in breast and bladder cancer cells. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47:2013–21.

– Luo Y., Niu F., Sun Z., Cao W., Zhang X., Guan D., Lv Z., zhang B., Xu Y. Altered expression of Aβ metabolism-associated molecules from d-galactose/AlCl3 induced mouse brain. Mech. Ageing Dev. 2009;130:248–252. doi: 10.1016/j.mad.2008.12.005.

– M. A. Abdulla, K. A.-A. Ahmed, F. H. Al-Bayaty, and Y. Masood, “Gastroprotective effect of Phyllanthus niruri leaf extract against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats,” African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 226–230, 2010.

– M. A. Abdulla, S. M. Noor, V. Sabaratnam, N. Abdullah, K.-H. Wong, and H. M. Ali, “Effect of culinary-medicinal lion’s mane mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae), on ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats,” International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 325–330, 2008.

– M. Friedman Chemistry, nutrition, and health-promoting properties of Hericium erinaceus (lion’s mane) mushroom fruiting bodies and mycelia and their bioactive compounds J Agric Food Chem, 63 (32) (2015), pp. 7108-7123.

– M. Friedman, P.R. Henika, R.E. Mandrell Antibacterial activities of phenolic benzaldehydes and benzoic acids against Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica J Food Prot, 66 (2003), pp. 1811-1821.

– M. Friedman, P.R. Henika, R.E. Mandrell Bactericidal activities of plant essential oils and some of their isolated constituents against Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica J Food Prot, 65 (2002), pp. 1545-1560.

– M. Gong, J. An, H.Z. Lu, C.F. Wu, Y.J. Li, J.Q. Cheng, et al. Effects of denaturation and amino acid modification on fluorescence spectrum and hemagglutinating activity of Hericium erinaceum lectin Acta Biochim Biophys Sin, 36 (5) (2004), pp. 343-350.

– M.H. Yim, J.W. Shin, J.Y. Son, S.M. Oh, S.H. Han, J.H. Cho, et al. Soluble components of Hericium erinaceum induce NK cell activation via production of interleukin-12 in mice splenocytes Acta Pharmacol Sin, 28 (6) (2007), pp. 901-907.

– M. M. Wolfe and G. Sachs, “Acid suppression: optimizing therapy for gastroduodenal ulcer healing, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and stress-related erosive syndrome,” Gastroenterology, vol. 118, no. 2, supplement 1, pp. S9–S31, 2000.

– M. Miyazawa, N. Matsuda, N. Tamura, R. Ishikawa Characteristic flavor of volatile oil from dried fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. J Essent Oil Res, 20 (2008), pp. 420-423.

– M. Miyazawa, T. Takahashi, I. Horibe, R. Ishikawa Two new aromatic compounds and a new D-arabinitol ester from the mushroom Hericium erinaceum Tetrahedron, 68 (2012), pp. 2007-2010.

– M. O. Sofidiya, L. Agufobi, A. J. Akindele et al., “Effect of Flabellaria paniculata Cav. extracts on gastric ulcer in rats,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 12, article 168, 2012.

– M.R. Shao Protective role of Hericium erinaceus polysaccharides on gastrointestinal mucosa function [dissertation] Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou (2014).

– Ma L., Zhang S., Du M. Cordycepin from Cordyceps militaris prevents hyperglycemia in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Nutr. Res. 2015;35:431–439. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2015.04.011.

– Ma Y, Mizuno T, Ito H. Antitumor activity of some polysaccharides isolated from a Chinese mushroom, Huangmo, the fruiting body of Hohenbuehelia serotina. Agric Biol Chem. 1991;55:2701–10.

– Maeda YY, Sakaizumi M, Moriwaki K, Yonekawa H. Genetic control of the expression of two biological activities of an antitumor polysaccharide, Lentinan. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1991;13:977.

– Mandrekar P., Bala S., Catalano D., Kodys K., Szabo G. The opposite effects of acute and chronic alcohol on lipopolysaccharide- induced inflammation are linked to IRAK-M in human monocytes. The Journal of Immunology. 2009;183(2):1320–1327. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.0803206.

– Mau JL, Lin HC, Chen CC. Antioxidant properties of several medicinal mushrooms. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:6072–7.

– Miguel J, Garcia B, Espinosa ME, Ogura T. Volatile Compounds secreted by the oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) and their antibacterial activities. J Agric Food Chem. 1997;45:4049–52.

– Mizuno T. The extraction and development of antitumour-active polysaccharides from medicinal mushrooms in Japan. Int J Med Mushrooms. 1999;1:9–29.

– Mizuno T, Zhuang C, Abe K, Okamoto H, Kiho T, Ukai S, et al. Antitumor and hypoglycemic activities of polysaccharides from the sclerotia and mycelia of Inonotus obliquus (Pers.: Fr.) Pil. (Aphyllophoromycetideae) Int J Med Mushrooms. 1999;1:301–16.

– Mlinarič A, Kac J, Fatur T, Filipič M. Anti-genotoxic activity of the mushroom Lactarius vellereusextract in bacteria and in mammalian cells in vitro. Pharmazie. 2004;59:217–21.

– Mori K, Inatomi S, Ouchi K, Azumi Y, Tuchida T. Improving effects of the mushroom Yamabushitake (Hericium erinaceus) on mild cognitive impairment: A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Phytother Res. 2009;23:367–72.

– Mori K., Obara Y., Moriya T., Inatomi S., Nakahata N. Effects of Hericium erinaceus on amyloid β(25–35) peptide-induced learning and memory deficits in mice. Biomed. Res. 2011;32:67–72. doi: 10.2220/biomedres.32.67.

– Morigiwa A, Kitabatake K, Fujimoto Y, Ihekawa N. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory triterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum. Chem Pharm Bull. 1986;34:3025–8.

– Mueller A, Raptis J, Rice PJ, Kalbfleisch JH, Stout RD, Ensley HE, et al. The influence of glucan polymer structure and solution conformation on binding to (1-3)-beta-D-glucan receptors in human monocyte-like cell line. Glycobiology. 2000;10:339–46.

– Murphy E., Steenbergen C. Mechanisms underlying acute protection from cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury. Physiol. Rev. 2008;88:581–609. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00024.2007.

– N. Cohen, J. Cohen, M.D. Asatiani, V.K. Varshney, H.T. Yu, Y.C. Yang, et al. Chemical composition and nutritional and medicinal value of fruit bodies and submerged cultured mycelia of culinary-medicinal higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms Int J Med Mushrooms, 16 (2014), pp. 273-291.

– N. Shimizu, T. Watanabe, T. Arakawa, Y. Fujiwara, K. Higuchi, and T. Kuroki, “Pentoxifylline accelerates gastric ulcer healing in rats: roles of tumor necrosis factor alpha and neutrophils during the early phase of ulcer healing,” Digestion, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 157–164, 2000.

– Nartey ET, Ofosuhene M, Kudzi W, et al. Antioxidant and gastric cytoprotective prostaglandins properties of Cassia sieberiana roots bark extract as an anti-ulcerogenic agent. BBMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2012;12, article 65.

– Ngai PH, Ng TB. Lentin, a novel and potent antifungal protein from shitake mushroom with inhibitory effects on activity of human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase and proliferation of leukemic cells. Life Sci. 2003;73:3363–74.

– Nishida I, Nanba H, Kuroda H. Antitumour activity exhibited by orally administered extracts from fruit-body of Grifola frondosa (Maitake) Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1988;36:1819–27.

– Nordmann R., Ribiere C., Rouach H. Implication of free radical mechanisms in ethanol-induced cellular injury. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 1992;12(3):219–240. doi: 10.1016/0891-5849(92)90030-K.

– O. M. E. Abdel-Salam, J. Czimmer, A. Debreceni, J. Szolcsányi, and G. Mózsik, “Gastric mucosal integrity: gastric mucosal blood flow and microcirculation. An overview,” Journal of Physiology Paris, vol. 95, no. 1–6, pp. 105–127, 2001.

– Oh JY, Cho KJ, Chung SH. Activation of macrophages by GLB, a protein-polysaccharide of the growing tips of Ganoderma lucidum. Yakhakhoe Chi. 1998;42:302–6.

– Ohkawa H., Ohishi N., Yagi K. Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Analytical Biochemistry. 1979;95(2):351–358. doi: 10.1016/0003-2697(79)90738-3.

– Ohno N, Harada T, Masuzawa S, Miura NN, Adachi Y, Nakajima M, et al. Antitumor activity and hematopoietic response of a β – glucan extracted from an edible and medicinal mushroom Sparassis crispaWulf.:Fr. (Aphylloromycetidae Int J Med Mushrooms. 2002;4:1326.

– Ohno N, Nameda S, Harada T, Miura NN, Adachi Y, Nakajima M, et al. Immunomodulating activity of a β-glucan preparation, SCG, extracted from a culinary-medicinal mushroom, Sparassis crispa Wulf.:Fr. (Aphyllophoromycetidae), and application to cancer patients. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2003;5:359–68.

– Okazaki M, Adachi Y, Ohno N, Yadomae T. Structure-activity relationship of (1-3)-β-Dglucan in the induction of cytokine production from macrophages in vitro. Biol Pharm Bull. 1995;18:1320–7.

– Ooi VE, Liu F. Immunomodulation and anti-cancer activity of polysaccharide-protein complexes. Curr Med Chem. 2000;7:715–29.

– P. Manzi, A. Aguzzi, L. Pizzoferrato Nutritional value of mushrooms widely consumed in Italy Food Chem, 73 (2001), pp. 321-325.

– P. V. Tan, B. Nyasse, T. Dimo, and C. Mezui, “Gastric cytoprotective anti-ulcer effects of the leaf methanol extract of Ocimum suave (Lamiaceae) in rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 82, no. 2-3, pp. 69–74, 2002.

– Pari L., KarthiKesan K. Protective role of caffeic acid against alcohol-induced biochemical changes in rats. Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology. 2007;21(4):355–361. doi: 10.1111/j.1472-8206.2007.00505.x.

– Peleg II, Wilcox CM. The role of eicosanoids, cyclooxygenases, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in colorectal tumorigenesis and chemoprevention. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology. 2002;34(2):117–125.

– Peskar BM. Role of cyclooxygenase isoforms in gastric mucosal defence. Journal of Physiology Paris. 2001;95(1–6):3–9.

– Peuzuto JM. Plant derived anticancer agents. Biochem Pharmacol. 1997;53:121–33.

– Pleis JR, Lucas JW. Summary health statistics for U.S. Adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2007. Vital Health Statistics. 2009;10(240):1–159.

– Pratt D. S., Kaplan M. M. Evaluation of abnormal liver-enzyme results in asymptomatic patients. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2000;342(17):1266–1271. doi: 10.1056/NEJM200004273421707.

– R. Arya, M. Mallik, and S. C. Lakhotia, “Heat shock genes—integrating cell survival and death,” Journal of Biosciences, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 595–610, 2007.

– Rafatullah S, Tariq M, Al-Yahya MA, Mossa JS, Ageel AM. Evaluation of turmeric (Curcuma longa) for gastric and duodenal antiulcer activity in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1990;29(1):25–34.

– Ren J., Shi J., Han C., Liu Z., Guo J. Isolation and biological activity of triglycerides of the fermented mushroom of Coprinus Comatus. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2012;12(article 52) doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-52.

– Rony KA, Mathew J, Neenu PP, Janardhanan KK. Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst occurring in South India attenuates gastric ulceration in rats. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources. 2011;2(1):19–27.

– Rosello A., Warnes G., Meier U.C. Cell death pathways and autophagy in the central nervous system and its involvement in neurodegeneration, immunity and central nervous system infection: To die or not to die—That is the question. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 2012;168:52–57. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2011.04544.x.

– S. Alqasoumi, M. Al-Yahya, T. Al-Howiriny, and S. Rafatullah, “Gastroprotective effect of radish “Raphanus sativus” L. on experimental gastric ulcer models in rats,” Farmacia, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 204–214, 2008.

– S.C. Sheu, Y. Lyu, M.S. Lee, J.H. Cheng Immunomodulatory effects of polysaccharides isolated from Hericium erinaceus on dendritic cells Process Biochem, 48 (2013), pp. 1402-1408.

– S.C. Shih, K.-W. Tseng, S.-C. Lin et al., “Expression patterns of transforming growth factor-beta and its receptors in gastric mucosa of patients with refractory gastric ulcer,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 136–141, 2005.

– S. Golbabapour, N. S. Gwaram, M. M. J. Al-Obaidi et al., “Schiffbase metal derivatives enhance the expression of HSP70 and suppress BAX proteins in prevention of acute gastric lesion,” BioMed Research International. In press.

– S. Golbabapour, N. S. Gwaram, P. Hassandarvish et al., “Gastroprotection studies of schiff base zinc (II) derivative complex against acute superficial hemorrhagic mucosal lesions in rats,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 9, Article ID e75036, 2013.

– S. Golbabapour, M. Hajrezaie, P. Hassandarvish et al., “Acute toxicity and gastroprotective role of M. Pruriens in ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injuries in rats,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2013, Article ID 974185, 13 pages, 2013.

– S. Kobayashi, H. Tamanoi, Y. Hasegawa, Y. Segawa, A. Masuyama Divergent synthesis of bioactive resorcinols isolated from the fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceum: total syntheses of hericenones A, B, and I, hericenols B-D, and erinacerins A and B J Org Chem, 79 (2014), pp. 5227-5238.

– S.P. Kim, E. Moon, S.H. Nam, M. Friedman Hericium erinaceus mushroom extracts protect infected mice against Salmonella Typhimurium-induced liver damage and mortality by stimulation of innate immune cells J Agric Food Chem, 60 (22) (2012), pp. 5590-5596.

– S. Rafatullah, M. Tariq, M. A. Al-Yahya, J. S. Mossa, and A. M. Ageel, “Evaluation of turmeric (Curcuma longa) for gastric and duodenal antiulcer activity in rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 25–34, 1990.

– S. Sotgia, A. Zinellu, A.A. Mangoni, G. Pintus, J. Attia, C. Carru, et al. Clinical and biochemical correlates of serum Lergothioneine concentrations in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults PLoS One, 9 (2014), p. e84918.

– S. Woraharn, N. Lailerd, B.S. Sivamaruthi, W. Wangcharoen, S. Peerajan, S. Sirisattha, et al. Development of fermented Hericium erinaceus juice with high content of L-glutamine and L-glutamic acid Int J Food Sci Technol, 50 (2015), pp. 2104-2112.

– S. Woraharn, N. Lailerd, B.S. Sivamaruthi, W. Wangcharoen, S. Sirisattha, S. Peerajan, et al. Evaluation of factors that influence the L-glutamic and γ-aminobutyric acid production during Hericium erinaceus fermentation by lactic acid bacteria Cyta J Food, 14 (1) (2016), pp. 47-54.

– Sadler M, Saltmarsh M. Functional Foods : The Consumer, the Products and the Evidence. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry; 1998.

– Salminen A., Haapasalo A., Kauppinen A., Kaarniranta K., Soininen H., Hiltunen M. Impaired mitochondrial energy metabolism in Alzheimer’s disease: Impact on pathogenesis via disturbed epigenetic regulation of chromatin landscape. Prog. Neurobiol. 2015;131:1–20. doi: 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2015.05.001.

– Schiller JS, Lucas JW, Ward BW, et al. Summary health statistics for U.S. Adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2010. Vital Health Statistics. 2012;10(252):1–207.

– Schlegel B, Luhmann U, Härtl A, Gräfe U. Piptamine, a new antibiotic produced by Piptoporus betulinus Lu 9-1. J Antibiot (Tokyo) 2000;53:973–4.

– Sharma JR. Ecology and distribution of Hymenochaetaceae. In: Sharma JR, editor. Hymenochaetaceae of India. Calcutta, India: Botanical Survey of India; 1995. pp. 9–10.

– Shiao MS, Lee KR, Lin LJ, Wang CT. Natural products and biological activities of the Chinese medical fungus, Ganoderma lucidum. In: Ho CT, Osawa T, Huang MT, Rosen RT, editors. Food phyotchemicals for cancer prevention. II: Teas, spices and herbs. Washington DC: American Chemical Society; 1994. pp. 342–54.

– Shih S-C, Tseng K-W, Lin S-C, et al. Expression patterns of transforming growth factor-beta and its receptors in gastric mucosa of patients with refractory gastric ulcer. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2005;11(1):136–141.

– Shimizu N, Watanabe T, Arakawa T, Fujiwara Y, Higuchi K, Kuroki T. Pentoxifylline accelerates gastric ulcer healing in rats: roles of tumor necrosis factor alpha and neutrophils during the early phase of ulcer healing. Digestion. 2000;61(3):157–164.

– Shimmyo Y., Kihara T., Akaike A., Niidome T., Sugimoto H. Three distinct neuroprotective functions of myricetin against glutamate-induced neuronal cell death: Involvement of direct inhibition of caspase-3. J. Neurosci. Res. 2008;86:1836–1845. doi: 10.1002/jnr.21629.

– Sica R.E. Could astrocytes be the primary target of an offending agent causing the primary degenerative diseases of the human central nervous system? A hypothesis. Med. Hypotheses. 2015;84:481–489. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2015.02.004.

– Smania A, Jr, Delle MF, Smania EF, Cuneo RS. Antibacterial activity of steroidal compounds isolated from Ganoderma applanatum (Pers.) Pat. (Aphyllophoromycetideae) fruit body. Int J Med Mushrooms. 1999;1:325–30.

– Smania EF, Delle MF, Smania A, Jr, Yunes RA, Cuneo RS. Antifungal activity of sterols and triterpenes isolated from Ganoderma annulare. Fitoterapia. 2003;74:375–7.

– Sofidiya MO, Agufobi L, Akindele AJ, et al. Effect of Flabellaria paniculata Cav. extracts on gastric ulcer in rats. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2012;12, article 168.

– Song KS, Cho SM, Lee JH, Kim HM, Han SB, Ko KS, et al. B-lymphocyte-stimulating polysaccharide from mushroom Phellinus linteus. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1995;43:2105–8.

– Su CY, Shiao MS, Wang CT. Predominant inhibition of ganodermic acid S on the thromboxane A2-dependent pathway in human platelets response to collagen. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999;1437:223–34.

– Su W.T., Shih Y.A. Nanofiber containing carbon nanotubes enhanced PC12 cell proliferation and neuritogenesis by electrical stimulation. Biomed. Mater. Eng. 2015;26:189–195. doi: 10.3233/BME-151305.

– Suga T, Maeda YY, Uchida H, Rokutanda M, Chihara G. Macrophage-mediated acute-phase transport protein production induced by Lentinan. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1986;8:691.

– Sugui MM, de Lima Alves PL, Delmanto RD, da Eira AF, Salvadori DM, Ribeiro LR. Antimutagenic effect of Lentinula edodes (BERK.) Pegler mushroom and possible variation among lineages. Food Chem Toxicol. 2003;41:555–60.

– T. Li, Y.M. Lo, B. Moon Feasibility of using Hericium erinaceus as the substrate for vinegar fermentation LWT Food Sci Technol, 55 (2014), pp. 323-328.

– T. Mizuno, T. Wasa, H. Ito, C. Suzuki, N. Ukai Antitumor-active polysaccharides isolated from the fruiting body of Hericium erinaceum, an edible and medicinal mushroom called yamabushitake or houtou Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 56 (2) (1992), pp. 347-348.

– T. Wu, B. Xu Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of eight medicinal mushroom species from China Int J Med Mushrooms, 17 (2015), pp. 129-140.

– Taguchi T, Furue H, Kimura T, Kondo T, Hattori T, Itoh T, et al. End point result of a randomized controlled study of the treatment of gastrointestinal cancer with a combination of lentinan and chemotherapeutic agents. Excerpta Medica. 1985:151–65.

– Taguchi T, Furue H, Kimura T, Kondo T, Hattori T, Ito I, et al. End-point results of Phase III study of Lentinan. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 1985;12:366–80.

– Tan PV, Nyasse B, Dimo T, Mezui C. Gastric cytoprotective anti-ulcer effects of the leaf methanol extract of Ocimum suave (Lamiaceae) in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2002;82(2-3):69–74.

– Tang X.Q., Feng J.Q., Chen J., Chen P.X., Zhi J.L., Cui Y., Guo R.X., Yu H.M. Protection of oxidative preconditioning against apoptosis induced by H2O2 in PC12 cells: Mechanisms via MMP, ROS, and Bcl-2. Brain Res. 2005;1057:57–64. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2005.07.072.

– Tasaka K, Mio M, Izushi K, Akagi M, Makino T. Anti-allergic constituents in the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum (II):The inhibitory effect of cyclooctasulfur on histamine release. Agents Actions. 1988;23:157–60.

– Thatte U., Bagadey S., Dahanukar S. Modulation of programmed cell death by medicinal plants. Cell Mol. Biol. 2000;46:199–214.

– Thurman R. G., Bradford B. U., Iimuro Y., et al. Mechanisms of alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity: studies in rats. Frontiers in Bioscience. 1999;4:42–46. doi: 10.2741/Thurman.

– Tsukimi Y, Nozue C, Okabe S. Effects of leminoprazole, omeprazole and sucralfate on indomethacin-induced delayed healing of kissing gastric ulcers in rats. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 1996;11(4):335–340.

– Tzianabos A. Polysaccharide immunomodulators as therapeutic agents: Structural aspects and biologic function. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2000;13:523–33.

– U. Lindequist, T.H. Niedermeyer, W.D. Jülich The pharmacological potential of mushrooms Evid Based Complement Altern Med, 2 (2005), pp. 285-299.

– V. Bilay, T. Beregova, V. Kukharskyy et al., “The influence of culinary-medicinal mushrooms: Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus on injuries of gastric mucosa in rats evoked by stress,” in Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products, vol. 1 of Oral Presentations:Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), pp. 306–311, Arcachon, France, October, 2011.

– V. Sabaratnam, W. Kah-Hui, M. Naidu, P.R. David Neuronal health-can culinary and medicinal mushrooms help? J Tradit Complement Med, 3 (2013), pp. 62-68.

– W.J. Xue, W. Yang, Q.H. Chen Prevention and treatment of alloxan-induced diabetes in mice by the polysaccharides from Laminaria japonica and Hericium erinaceus J China Pharm Univ, 20 (1989), pp. 378-380.

– W. Kah-Hui, K. Gowri, B. Robiah, P. Chia-Wei, S. Vikineswary Restoration of sensory dysfunction following peripheral nerve injury by the polysaccharide from culinary and medicinal mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. through its neuroregenerative action Food Sci Technol Campinas, 35 (2015), pp. 712-721.

– W. Li, W. Zhou, E.J. Kim, S.H. Shim, H.K. Kang, Y.H. Kim Isolation and identification of aromatic compounds in lion’s mane mushroom and their anticancer activities Food Chem, 170 (2015), pp. 336-342.

– W. Li, Y.N. Sun, W. Zhou, S.H. Shim, Y.H. Kim, D. Erinacene A new aromatic compound from Hericium erinaceum J Antibiot, 67 (2014), pp. 727-729.

– Wallace JL. Recent advances in gastric ulcer therapeutics. Current Opinion in Pharmacology. 2005;5(6):573–577.

– Wang D., Tan Q.R., Zhang Z.J. Neuroprotective effects of paeoniflorin, but not the isomer albiflorin, are associated with the suppression of intracellular calcium and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase II in PC12 cells. J. Mol. Neurosci. 2013;51:581–590. doi: 10.1007/s12031-013-0031-7.

– Wang H, Ng TB. Ganodermin, an antifungal protein from fruiting bodies of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Peptides. 2006;27:27–30.

– Wang HX, Gao J, Ng TB. A new lectin with highly potent antihepatoma and antisarcoma activities from the oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;275:810–6.

– Wang HX, Ng TB. Examination of lectins, polysaccharopeptide, polysaccharide, alkaloid, coumarin and trypsin inhibitors for inhibitory activity against human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase and glycohydrolases. Planta Med. 2001;67:669–72.

– Wang HX, Ng TB. Isolation of a novel ubiquitin-like protein from Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom with anti-human immunodeficiency virus, translation-inhibitory, and ribonuclease activities. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;276:587–93.

– Wang HX, Ng TB. Isolation of a ribonuclease from fruiting bodies of the wild mushroom Termitomyces globulus. Peptides. 2003;24:973–7.

– Wang M., Gao Y., Xu D., Konishi T., Gao Q. Hericium erinaceus (yamabushitake): A unique resource for developing functional foods and medicines. Food Funct. 2014;5:3055–3064. doi: 10.1039/C4FO00511B.

– Wang Z., Wei X., Yang J., Suo J., Chen J., Liu X., Zhao X. Chronic exposure to aluminum and risk of Alzheimer’s disease: A meta-analysis. Neurosci. Lett. 2016;610:200–206. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2015.11.014.

– Wangun HV, Berg A, Hertel W, Nkengfack AE, Hertweck C. Anti-inflammatory and anti-hyaluronate lyase activities of lanostanoids from Piptoporus betulinus. J Antibiot (Tokyo) 2004;57:755–8.

– Wasser SP. Medicinal mushrooms as a source of antitumor and immunomodulating polysaccharides. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2002;60:258–74.

– Wasser SP, Weis AL. Medicinal properties of substances occurring in higher basidiomycete mushrooms : A modern prospective. Crit Rev Immunol. 1999;19:65–96.

– Wasser SP, Weis AL. Medicinal properties of substances occurring in higher basidiomycete mushrooms: Current perspectives. Int J Med Mushrooms. 1999;1:31–62.

– Wasser SP, Weis AL. Medicinal values of the genus Pleurotus (Fr) P.Krast (Agaricales S. R. Basidiomycetes) Int J Med Mushrooms. 1999;1:69–70.

– Wei H., Li L., Song Q., Ai H., Chu J., Li W. Behavioural study of the d-galactose induced aging model in c57bl/6j mice. Behav. Brain Res. 2005;157:245–251. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2004.07.003.

– Wei J., Wang S., Liu G., Pei D., Liu Y., Liu Y., Di D. Polysaccharides from Enteromorpha proliferaenhance the immunity of normal mice. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2014;64:1–5. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2013.11.013.

– Wertheimer S. J., Myers C. L., Wallace R. W., Parks T. P. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 gene expression in human endothelial cells. Differential regulation by tumor necrosis factor-α and phorbol myristate acetate. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1992;267(17):12030–12035.

– Wolfe MM, Sachs G. Acid suppression: optimizing therapy for gastroduodenal ulcer healing, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and stress-related erosive syndrome. Gastroenterology. 2000;118(2, supplement 1):S9–S31.

– Wong K-H, Naidu M, David P, et al. Peripheral nerve regeneration following crush injury to rat peroneal nerve by aqueous extract of medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr) Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae) Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2011;2011580752.

– Wong KH, Sabaratnam V, Abdullah N, Kuppusamy UR, Naidu M. Effects of cultivation techniques and processing on antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Hericium erinaceus (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. extracts. Food Technology and Biotechnology. 2009;47(1):47–55.

– Wong K-H, Vikineswary S, Abdullah N, Naidu M, Keynes R. Activity of aqueous extracts of lion’s mane mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae) on the neural cell line NG108-15. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms. 2007;9(1):57–65.

– Wu D, Pae M, Ren Z, Guo Z, Smith D, Meydani SN. Dietary supplementation with white button mushroom enhances natural killer cell activity in C57BL/6 mice. J Nutr. 2007;137:1472–7.

– Y. H. Itoh and R. Noguchi, “Pre-treatment with mild whole-body heating prevents gastric ulcer induced by restraint and water-immersion stress in rats,” International Journal of Hyperthermia, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 183–191, 2000.

– X. He, X. Wang, J. Fang, Y. Chang, N. Ning, H. Guo, et al. Structures, biological activities, and industrial applications of the polysaccharides from Hericium erinaceus (lion’s mane) mushroom: a review Int J Biol Macromol, 97 (2017), pp. 228-237.

– Y. Hou, X. Ding, W. Hou Composition and antioxidant activity of water-soluble oligosaccharides from Hericium erinaceus Mol Med Rep, 11 (2015), pp. 3794-3799.

– Y.R. Li, G.Q. Zhang, T.B. Ng, H.X. Wang A novel lectin with antiproliferative and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activities from dried fruiting bodies of the monkey head mushroom Hericium erinaceum J Biomed Biotechnol (2010), p. 716515.

– Y. Tsukimi, C. Nozue, and S. Okabe, “Effects of leminoprazole, omeprazole and sucralfate on indomethacin-induced delayed healing of kissing gastric ulcers in rats,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 335–340, 1996.

–  Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. Wang, Z. Sun, Y. Zhuo, Y. Xu, et al. Protective effect of ethanol extracts of Hericium erinaceus on alloxan-induced diabetic neuropathic pain in rats Evid Based Complement Altern Med, 2015 (2015), p. 595480.

– Y. Zhu, Y. Chen, Q. Li, T. Zhao, M. Zhang, W.W. Feng, et al. Preparation characterization, and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of Bi3+-Hericium erinaceuspolysaccharide complex Carbohydr Polym, 110 (2014), pp. 231-237.

– Yamahara J, Mochizuki M, Rong HQ, Matsuda H, Fujimura H. The anti-ulcer effect in rats of ginger constituents. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1988;23(2-3):299–304.

– Yan R. Treatment of chronic hepatitis B with Wulingdan pill. J Fourth Milit Med Coll. 1987;8:380–3.

– Yang W., Yu J., Zhao L., Ma N., Fang Y., Pei F., Mariga A.M., Hu Q. Polysaccharides from Flammulina velutipes improve scopolamine-induced impairment of learning and memory of rats. J. Funct. Food. 2015;18:411–422. doi: 10.1016/j.jff.2015.08.003.

– Ying C-C, Xu Y, Wang Y. Icons of Medicinal Fungi from China. Beijing, China: Crc Pr I Llc; 1987.

– Ying JZ, Mao XL, Ma QM, Zong YC, Wen HA. Icons of medicinal fungi from China. In: Xu YH, translator; Ying JZ, editor. Illustrations of Chinese medicinal fungi. Beijing: Science Press; 1987. pp. 579–85.

– Z.H. Han, J.M. Ye, G.F. Wang Evaluation of in vivo antioxidant activity of Hericium erinaceus polysaccharides Int J Biol Macromol, 52 (2013), pp. 66-71.

– Z. Zhang, R.N. Liu, Q.J. Tang, J.S. Zhang, Y. Yang, X.D. Shang A new diterpene from the fungal mycelia of Hericium erinaceus Phytochem Lett, 11 (2015), pp. 151-156.

– Zhang Y, Mills G, Nair MG. Cyclooxygenase inhibitory and antioxidant compounds from the mycelia of the edible mushroom Grifola frondosa. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:7581–5.

– Zhang Y., Yang X., Jin G., Yang X., Zhang Y. Polysaccharides from Pleurotus ostreatus alleviate cognitive impairment in a rat model of Alzheimer’s disease. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2016;92:935–941. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.08.008.

– Zhang Z., G. Lv, H. Pan, A. Pandey, W. He, L. Fan Antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of endo-polysaccharides from Hericium erinaceusgrown on tofu whey Int J Biol Macromol, 51 (5) (2012), pp. 1140-1146.

– Zhao JD, Zhang XQ. Resources and taxonomy of Ling Zhi (ganoderma) in China. Proceedings of International Symposium Gganoderma Research, (October 24-26,) China: Beijing Medical University Beijing; 1994.

– Zhou X., Gong Z., Su Y., Lin J., Tang K. Cordyceps fungi: Natural products, pharmacological functions and developmental products. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2009;61:279–291. doi: 10.1211/jpp.61.03.0002.

References for Agaricus Blazei

– A. A. Soares, A. L. De Oliveira, A. B. Sá-Nakanishi et al., “Effects of an Agaricus blazei aqueous extract pretreatment on paracetamol-induced brain and liver injury in rats,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2013, Article ID 469180, 12 pages, 2013.

– A. B. D. Sá-Nakanishi, A. A. Soares, A. L. De Oliveira, J. Fernando Comar, R. M. Peralta, and A. Bracht, “Effects of treating old rats with an aqueous Agaricus blazei extract on oxidative and functional parameters of the brain tissue and brain mitochondria,” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2014, Article ID 563179, 13 pages, 2014.

– A. Čabarkapa, L. Živković, D. Žukovec et al., “Protective effect of dry olive leaf extract in adrenaline induced DNA damage evaluated using in vitro comet assay with human peripheral leukocytes,” Toxicology in Vitro, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 451–456, 2014.

– A. E. S. S. Carvajal, E. A. Koehnlein, A. A. Soares et al., “Antitumor-active heteroglycans from niohshimeji mushroom, Tricholoma giganteum,” Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 568–571, 1995.

– A. F. Da Silva, D. Sartori, F. C. MacEdo Jr., L. R. Ribeiro, M. H. P. Fungaro, and M. S. Mantovani, “Effects of β-glucan extracted from Agaricus blazei on the expression of ERCC5, CASP9, and CYP1A1 genes and metabolic profile in HepG2 cells,” Human and Experimental Toxicology, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 647–654, 2013.

– Adachi Y, Okazaki M, Ohno N, Yadomae T. Enhancement of cytokine production by macrophages stimulated with (1→3)-beta-d-glucan, grifolan (GRN), isolated from Grifola frondosa. Biol Pharm Bull 1994;17:1554–60.

– Afzali B, Lombardi G, Lechler RI, Lord GM. The role of T helper 17 (Th17) and regulatory T cells (Treg) in human organ transplantation and autoimmune disease. Clinical and Experimental Immunology. 2007;148(1):32–46.

– Ahn WS, Kim DJ, Chae GT, et al. Natural killer cell activity and quality of life were improved by consumption of a mushroom extract, Agaricus blazei Murill Kyowa, in gynecological cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. International Journal of Gynecological Cancer. 2004;14(4):589–594.

– Amino M, Noguchi R, Yata J et al. Studies on the effect of lentinan on human immune system. II. In vivo effect on NK activity, MLR induced killer activity and PHA induced blastic response of lymphocytes in cancer patients. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 1983;10:2000–6.

– Babineau TJ, Hackford A, Kenler A et al. A phase II multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of three dosages of an immunomodulator (PGG-glucan) in high-risk surgical patients. Arch Surg1994;129:1204–10.

– Balkwill F, Mantovani A. Cancer and inflammation: implications for pharmacology and therapeutics. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2010;87(4):401–406.

– Bellini MF, Giacomini NL, Eira AF, Ribeiro LR, Mantovani MS. Anticlastogenic effect of aqueous extracts of Agaricus blazei on CHO-k1 cells, studying different developmental phases of the mushroom. Toxicol In Vitro2003;17:465–9.

– Benko S, Magyarics Z, Szabó A, Rajnavölgyi E. Dendritic cell subtypes as primary targets of vaccines: the emerging role and cross-talk of pattern recognition receptors. Biological Chemistry. 2008;389(5):469–485.

– Bernardshaw S, Hetland G, Ellertsen LK, Aaland Tryggestad AM, Johnson E. An extract of the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill differentially stimulates production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in human monocytes and human vein endothelial cells in vitro. Inflammation. 2005;29:147–153.

– Bernardshaw S, Hetland G, Ellertsen LK, Tryggestad AMA, Johnson E. An extract of the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill differentially stimulates production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in human monocytes and human vein endothelial cells in vitro. Inflammation. 2005;29(4–6):147–153.

– Bernardshaw S, Hetland G, Grinde B, Johnson E. An extract of the mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill protects against lethal septicemia in a mouse model of fecal peritonitis. Shock. 2006;25(4):420–425.

– Bernardshaw S, Johnson E, Hetland G. An extract of the mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill administered orally protects against systemic Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in mice. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology. 2005;62(4):393–398.

– Bernardshaw S, Lyberg T, Hetland G, Johnson E. Effect of an extract of the mushroom Agaricus blazeiMurill on expression of adhesion molecules and production of reactive oxygen species in monocytes and granulocytes in human whole blood ex vivo . Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica. 2007;115(6):719–725.

– Berven L, Karppinen P, Hetland G, Samuelsen AB. The polar high molecular weight fraction of the Agaricus blazei Murill extract, AndoSan™, reduces the activity of the tumor-associated protease, legumain, in RAW 264.7 cells. J Med Food. 2015 Apr;18(4):429–38.

– Bøgwald J, Johnson E, Seljelid R. The cytotoxic effect of mouse macrophages stimulated in vitro by a beta-glucan from yeast cell walls. Scand J Immunol 1982;15:297–304.

– Brown GD. Dectin-1: a signalling non-TLR pattern-recognition receptor. Nat Rev Immunol 2006;6:33–43.

– Castro M, Ralston NV, Morgenthaler TI, Rohrbach MS, Limper AH. Candida albicans stimulates arachidonic acid liberation from alveolar macrophages through alpha-mannan and beta-glucan cell wall components. Infect Immun 1994;62:3138–45.

– Cerwenka A, Lanier LL. Natural killer cells, viruses and cancer. Nat Rev Immunol 2001;1:41–9.

– Chan CB, Abe M, Hashimoto N, Hao C, Williams IR, et al. Mice lacking asparaginyl endopeptidase develop disorders resembling hemophagocytic syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Jan 13;106(2):468–73. Epub 2008 Dec 23.

– Chan GC, Chan WK, Sze DM. The effects of beta-glucan on human immune and cancer cells. Journal of Hematology & Oncology. 2009;2:p. 25.

– Chan Y, Chang T, Chan CH, Yeh YC, Chen CW, Shieh B, Li C. Immunomodulatory effect of Agaricus blazei Murill in Balb/cByJ mice. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2007;40:201–208.

– Chen L, Shao H. Extract from Agaricus blazei Murill can enhance immune responses elicited by DNA vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2006;109(1-2):177–182.

– Chen L, Shao HJ, Su YB. Coimmunization of Agaricus blazei Murill extract with hepatitis B virus core protein through DNA vaccine enhances cellular and humoral immune responses. International Immunopharmacology. 2004;4(3):403–409.

– Chihara G. Recent progress in immunopharmacology and therapeutic effects of polysaccharides. Dev Biol Stand 1992;77:191–7.

– Czop JK, Valiante NM, Janusz MJ. Phagocytosis of particulate activators of the human alternative complement pathway through monocyte beta-glucan receptors. Progress in Clinical and Biological Research. 1989;297:287–296.

– D. Anderson, T.-W. Yu, B. J. Phillips, and P. Schmezer, “The effect of various antioxidants and other modifying agents on oxygen-radical-generated DNA damage in human lymphocytes in the COMET assay,” Mutation Research—Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, vol. 307, no. 1, pp. 261–271, 1994.

– D. W. Fairbairn, P. L. Olive, and K. L. O’Neill, “The comet assay: a comprehensive review,” Mutation Research/Reviews in Genetic Toxicology, vol. 339, no. 1, pp. 37–59, 1995.

– De Jesus M, Ostroff GR, Levitz SM, Bartling TR, Mantis NJ. A population of Langerin-positive dendritic cells in murine Peyer’s patches involved in sampling β-glucan microparticles. PLoS One. 2014 Mar 14;9(3):e91002. eCollection 2014.

– Ebina T, Fujimiya Y. Antitumor effect of a peptide-glucan preparation extracted from Agaricus blazei in a double-grafted tumor system in mice. Biotherapy 1998;11:259–65.

– Ellertsen LK, Hetland G. An extract of the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill can protect against allergy. Clinical and Molecular Allergy. 2009;7, article no. 6.

– Ellertsen LK, Hetland G, Johnson E, Grinde B. Effect of a medicinal extract from Agaricus blazei Murill on gene expression in a human monocyte cell line as examined by microarrays and immuno assays. Int Immunopharmacol. 2006;6:133–143.

– Ellertsen LK, Wiker HG, Egeberg NT, Hetland G. Allergic sensitisation in tuberculosis and leprosy patients. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology. 2005;138(3):217–224.

– Endo M, Beppu H, Akiyama H, et al. Agaritine purified from Agaricus blazei Murrill exerts anti-tumor activity against leukemic cells. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 2010;1800(7):669–673.

– F. Firenzuoli and L. Gori, “Herbal medicine today: clinical and research issues,” Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 37–40, 2007.

– F. Firenzuoli, L. Gori, and G. Lombardo, “The medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei murrill: review of literature and pharmaco-toxicological problems,” Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 3–15, 2008.

– Fearnhead NS, Britton MP, Bodmer WF. The ABC of APC. Hum Mol Genet. 2001;10(7):721–33.

– Fitzner N, Clauberg S, Essmann F, Liebmann J, Kolb-Bachofen V. Human skin endothelial cells can express all 10 TLR genes and respond to respective ligands. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 2008;15(1):138–146.

– Fodde R. The APC gene in colorectal cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2002;38(7):867–71.

– Fodde R, Smits R. Disease model: familial adenomatous polyposis. Trends Mol Med. 2001;7(8):369–73.

– Førland DT, Johnson E, Sætre L, Lyberg T, Lygren I, Hetland G. Effect of an extract based on the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill on expression of cytokines and calprotectin in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology. 2011;73(1):66–75.

– Førland DT, Johnson E, Tryggestad AMA, Lyberg T, Hetland G. An extract based on the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill stimulates monocyte-derived dendritic cells to cytokine and chemokine production in vitro. Cytokine. 2010;49(3):245–250.

– Fujimiya Y, Suzuki Y, Oshiman KI, et al. Selective tumoricidal effect of soluble proteoglucan extracted from the basidiomycete, Agaricus blazei Murill, mediated via natural killer cell activation and apoptosis. Cancer Immunology Immunotherapy. 1998;46(3):147–159.

– G. Aviello, J. M. Canadanovic-Brunet, N. Milic et al., “Potent antioxidant and genoprotective effects of boeravinone G, a rotenoid isolated from Boerhaavia diffusa,” PLOS ONE, vol. 6, no. 5, Article ID e19628, 2011.

– G. Hetland, E. Johnson, T. Lyberg, S. Bernardshaw, A. M. A. Tryggestad, and B. Grinde, “Effects of the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill on immunity, infection and cancer,” Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 363–370, 2008.

– G. M. Benhusein, E. Mutch, S. Aburawi, and F. M. Williams, “Genotoxic effect induced by hydrogen peroxide in human hepatoma cells using comet assay,” Libyan Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2010.

– Gao L, Sun Y, Chen C, Xi Y, Wang J, Wang Z. Primary mechanism of apoptosis induction in a leukemia cell line by fraction FA-2-b-ss prepared from the mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2007 Nov;40(11):1545–55.

– Garay RP, Viens P, Bauer J et al. Cancer relapse under chemotherapy: why TLR2/4 receptor agonists can help. Eur J Pharmacol 2007;563:1–17.

– Gatner BN, Simmons RM, Canavera SJ, Akira S, Underhill DM. Collaborative induction of inflammatory responses by dectin- 1 and Toll-like receptor 2. J Experimental Med. 2003; May 5;197(9):1107–1117.

– Gawenda J, Traub F, Luck HJ, Kreipe H, von Wasielewski R. Legumain expression as a prognostic factor in breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2007;102:1–6.

– Geddes K, Magalhães JG, Girardin SE. Unleashing the therapeutic potential of NOD-like receptors. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 2009;8(6):465–479.

– Goodridge HS, Wolf AJ, Underhill DM. β-glucan recognition by the innate immune system. Immunological Reviews. 2009;230(1):38–50.

– Gravesen S, Nielsen PA, Iversen R, Nielsen KF. Microfungal contamination of damp buildings – examples of risk constructions and risk materials. Environ Health Perspect 1999;107 (Suppl.):505–8.

– Grinde B, Hetland G, Johnson E. Effects on gene expression and viral load of a medicinal extract from Agaricus blazei in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. Int Immunopharmacol. 2006;6:1311–1314.

– Half E, Bercovich D, Rozen P. Familial adenomatous polyposis. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2009;4.

– Haugen MH, Boye K, Nesland JM, Pettersen SJ, Egeland EV, Tamhane T et al. High expression of the cysteine proteinase legumain in colorectal cancer—implications for therapeutic targeting. Eur J Cancer. 2015 Jan;51(1):9–17.

– Hetland G. Applicant/Inventor: Use of the mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill for the production of medicaments suitable for treating infections and allergies. WO 2005/065063 (Priority; Jan 2004)

– Hetland G, Johnson E, Lyberg T, Bernardshaw S, Tryggestad AMA, Grinde B. Effects of the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill on immunity, infection and cancer. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology. 2008;68(4):363–370.

– Hetland G, Johnson E, Lyberg T, Kvalheim G. The Mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill Elicits Medicinal Effects on Tumor, Infection, Allergy, and Inflammation through Its Modulation of Innate Immunity and Amelioration of Th1/Th2 Imbalance and Inflammation. Adv Pharmacol Sci. 2011: 157015.

– Hetland G, Løvik M, Wiker HG. Protective effect of β-glucan against Mycobacterium bovis, BCG infection in BALB/c mice. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology. 1998;47(6):548–553.

– Hetland G, Ohno N, Aaberge IS, Løvik M. Protective effect of β-glucan against systemic Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in mice. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology. 2000;27:111–116.

– Hetland G, Sandven P. β-1,3-glucan reduces growth of Mycobacterium bovis in macrophage cultures. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 2002;33:41–5.

– Holson RR, Freshwater L, Maurissen JP, Moser VC, Phang W. Statistical issues and techniques appropriate for developmental neurotoxicity testing: a report from the ILSI Research Foundation/Risk Science Institute expert working group on neurodevelopmental endpoints. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2008;30(4):326–48.

– Hopkins MH, Flanders WD, Bostick RM. Associations of circulating inflammatory biomarkers with risk factors for colorectal cancer in colorectal adenoma patients. Biomark Insights. 2012;7:143–50.

– Hsu CH, Hwang KC, Chiang YH, Chou P. The mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill extract normalizes liver function in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2008;14(3):299–301.

– Hsu CH, Liao YL, Lin SC, Hwang KC, Chou P. The mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill in combination with metformin and gliclazide improves insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled clinical trial. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2007;13(1):97–102.

– Huang N. Brazilian mushroom (Gee Song Rong) In: Huang, editor. Cultivation of eight rare and precious gourmet mushrooms. Chinese Agriculture University Press; 1997. pp. 95–101.

– Hussain SP, Harris CC. Inflammation and cancer: an ancient link with novel potentials. International Journal of Cancer. 2007;121(11):2373–2380.

– Iino Y, Yokoe T, Maemura M et al. Immunochemotherapies versus chemotherapy as adjuvant treatment after curative resection of operable breast cancer. Anticancer Res 1995;15:2907–11.

– Ikuzawa M, Matsunaga K, Nishiyama S, Nakajima S, Kobayashi Y, Andoh T, et al. Fate and distribution of an antitumor protein-bound polysaccharide PSK (Krestin). Int J Immunopharmacol. 1988;10(4):415–23.

– Instanes C, Ormstad H, Rydjord B, Wiker HG, Hetland G. Mould extracts increase the allergic response to ovalbumin in mice. Clin Exp Allergy. 2004;34:1634–1641.

– Itoh H, Ito H, Amano H, Noda H. Inhibitory action of a (1→6)-β-D-glucan-protein complex (F III-2-b) isolated from Agaricus blazei Murill (’Himematsutake’) on Meth A fibrosarcoma-bearing mice and its antitumor mechanism. Japanese Journal of Pharmacology. 1994;66(2):265–271.

– Izawa S, Inoue Y. A screening system for antioxidants using thioredoxin-deficient yeast: discovery of thermostable antioxidant activity from Agaricus blazei Murill. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2004;64:537–42.

– J. Limón-Pacheco and M. E. Gonsebatt, “The role of antioxidants and antioxidant-related enzymes in protective responses to environmentally induced oxidative stress,” Mutation Research, vol. 674, no. 1-2, pp. 137–147, 2009.

– J. Vasiljevic, L. P. Zivkovic, A. Cabarkapa, V. P. Bajic, N. J. Djelic, and B. M. Spremo-Potparevic, “Cordyceps sinensis: genotoxic potential in human peripheral blood cells and antigenotoxic properties against hydrogen peroxide by comet assay,” Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, vol. 22, supplement 2, pp. 24–31, 2016.

– Jiang J, Sliva D. Novel medicinal mushroom blend suppresses growth and invasiveness of human breast cancer cells. International Journal of Oncology. 2010;37(6):1529–1536.

– Johnson E, Førland DT, Sætre L, Bernardshaw SV, Lyberg T, Hetland G. Effect of an extract based on the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill on release of cytokines, chemokines and leukocyte growth factors in human blood ex vivo and in vivo. Scand J Immunol. 2009;69:242–250.

– K. Shimada, K. Fujikawa, K. Yahara, and T. Nakamura, “Antioxidative properties of xanthan on the autoxidation of soybean oil in cyclodextrin emulsion,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 945–948, 1992.

– Kasai H, He LM, Kawamura M, Yang PT, Deng XW, Munkanta M, Yamashita A, Terunuma H, Hirama M, Horiuchi I, Natori T, Koga T, Amano Y, Yamaguchi N, Ito M. IL-12 Production Induced by Agaricus blazei Fraction H (ABH) Involves Toll-like Receptor (TLR) Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2004;1:259–267.

– Kawagishi H, Inagaki R, Kanao T, Mizuno T, Shimura K, Ito H, et al. Fractionation and antitumor activity of the water-insoluble residue of Agaricus blazei fruiting bodies. Carbohydr Res. 1989;186(2):267–73.

– Kerrigan RW. Agaricus subrufescens, a cultivated edible and medicinal mushroom, and its synonyms. Mycologia. 2005;97:12–24.

– Kim GY, Lee MY, Lee HJ et al. Effect of water-soluble proteoglycan isolated from Agaricus blazei on the maturation of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Int Immunopharmacol 2005;5:1523–32.

– Kim SP, Nam SH, Friedman M. Hericium erinaceus (Lion’s Mane) Mushroom Extracts Inhibit Metastasis of Cancer Cells to the Lung in CT-26 Colon Cancer-Tansplanted Mice. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61(20):, 4898–4904.

– Kimura Y, Kido T, Takaku T, Sumiyoshi M, Baba K. Isolation of an anti-angiogenic substance from Agaricus blazei Murill: its antitumor and antimetastatic actions. Cancer Science. 2004;95(9):758–764.

– Kisich KO, Higgins M, Diamond G, Heifets L. Tumor necrosis factor alpha stimulates killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by human neutrophils. Infect Immun 2002;70:4591–9.

– Kobayashi H, Matsunaga K, Oguchi Y. Antimetastatic effects of PSK (Krestin), a protein-bound polysaccharide obtained from basidiomycetes: an overview. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1995;4:275–81.

– Kobayashi H, Yoshida R, Kanada Y, et al. Suppressing effects of daily oral supplementation of beta-glucan extracted from Agaricus blazei Murill on spontaneous and peritoneal disseminated metastasis in mouse model. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology. 2005;131(8):527–538.

– Kubo N, Myojin Y, Shimamoto F et al. Protective effects of a water-soluble extract from cultured medium of Ganoderma lucidum (Rei-shi) mycelia and Agaricus blazei murill against X-irradiation in B6C3F1 mice: increased small intestinal crypt survival and prolongation of average time to animal death. Int J Mol Med2005;15:401–6.

– Kumagai Y, Akira S. Identification and functions of pattern-recognition receptors. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2010;125(5):985–992.

– Kuo YC, Huang YL, Chen CC, Lin YS, Chuang KA, Tsai WJ. Cell cycle progression and cytokine gene expression of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells modulated by Agaricus blazei. J Lab Clin Med. 2002;140:176–187.

– Kvifte B. Reddet av japansk soppekstrakt. Mat & Helse 2003;10:34–5.

– L. Henderson, A. Wolfreys, J. Fedyk, C. Bourner, and S. Windebank, “The ability of the Comet assay to discriminate between genotoxins and cytotoxins,” Mutagenesis, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 89–94, 1998.

– Lee IP, Kang BH, Roh JK, Kim JR. Lack of carcinogenicity of lyophilized Agaricus blazei Murill in a F344 rat two year bioassay. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2008;46(1):87–95.

– Lin H, Cheung SWY, Nesin M, Cassileth B, Cunningham-Rundles S. Enhancement of umbilical cord blood cell hematopoiesis by Maitake beta-glucan is mediated by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor production. Clin Vaccine Immunol 2007;14:21–7.

– Lin Hm Yu-Hing S, Cassileth B, Sirotnak F, Cunningham Rundles S. Maitake beta-glucan MD-fraction enhances bone marrow colony formation and reduces doxorubicin toxicity in vitro. Int Immunopharmacol 2004;4:91–9.

– Lin Y, Wei C, Liu Y, Qiu Y, Liu C, Guo F. Selective ablation of tumor-associated macrophages suppresses metastasis and angiogenesis. Cancer Sci. 2013 Sep;104(9):1217–25.

– Lienhardt C, Azzurri A, Amedei A, et al. Active tuberculosis in Africa is associated with reduced Th1 and increased Th2 activity in vivo. European Journal of Immunology. 2002;32(6):1605–1613.

– Liu C, Sun C, Huang H, Janda K, Edgington T. Overexpressionof legumain in tumors is significant for invasion/metastasis and a candidate enzymatic target for prodrug therapy. Cancer Res. 2003;63:2957–2964.

– Liu Y, Bajjuri K M, Liu C, Sinha SC. Targeting Cell Surface Alpha(v)beta(3) Integrins Increases Therapeutic Efficacies of a Legumain Protease-Activated Auristatin Prodrug. Mol Pharm. 2012 Jan 1; 9(1): 168–175.

– Løvik M, Hogseth AK, Gaarder PI, Hagemann R, Eide I. Diesel exhaust particles and carbon black have adjuvant activity on the local lymph node response and systemic IgE production to ovalbumin. Toxicology. 1997;121:165–178.

– Luo Y, Zhou H, Krueger J, Kaplan C, Lee SH, Dolman C, et al. Targeting tumor-associated macrophages as a novel strategy against breast cancer. J Clin Invest. 2006 Aug;116(8):2132–2141.

– M. A. Hussein, “A convenient mechanism for the free radical scavenging activity of resveratrol,” International Journal of Phytomedicine, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 459–469, 2011.

– M. F. Bellini, N. L. Giacomini, A. F. Eira, L. R. Ribeiro, and M. S. Mantovani, “Anticlastogenic effect of aqueous extracts of Agaricus blazei on CHO-k1 cells, studying different developmental phases of the mushroom,” Toxicology in Vitro, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 465–469, 2003.

– M. Kozarski, A. Klaus, D. Jakovljevic et al., “Antioxidants of edible mushrooms,” Molecules, vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 19489–19525, 2015.

– M. Kozarski, A. Klaus, M. Niksic, D. Jakovljevic, J. P. F. G. Helsper, and L. J. L. D. Van Griensven, “Antioxidative and immunomodulating activities of polysaccharide extracts of the medicinal mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, Ganoderma lucidum and Phellinus linteus,” Food Chemistry, vol. 129, no. 4, pp. 1667–1675, 2011.

– M. Oyaizu, “Studies on products of browning reaction prepared from glucose amine,” Japanese Journal of Nutrition, vol. 44, pp. 307–315, 1986.

– M. Radaković, N. Đelić, J. Stevanović et al., “Evaluation of the antigenotoxic effects of the royal sun mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (Higher basidiomycetes) in human lymphocytes treated with thymol in the comet assay,” International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 321–330, 2015.

– Maes MF, van Baar HM, van Ginkel CJ. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from the mushroom White Pom Pom (Hericeum erinaceum) Contact Derm. 1999;40:289–290.

– Martins de Oliveira J, Jordão BQ, Ribeiro LR, Ferreira da Eira A, Mantovani MS. Anti-genotoxic effect of aqueous extracts of sun mushroom (Agaricus blazei Murill lineage 99/26) in mammalian cells in vitro. Food Chem Toxicol2002;40:1775–80.

– Masuda Y, Inoue H, Ohta H, Miyake A, Konishi M, Nanba H. Oral administration of soluble β-glucans extracted from Grifola frondosa induces systemic antitumor immune response and decreases immunosuppression in tumor-bearing mice. Int J Cancer. 2013 Jul;133(1):108–19.

– Metzler-Zebeli BU, Zijlstra RT, Mosenthin R., and Gänzle MG. Dietary calciumphosphate content and oat β-glucan influence gastrointestinal microbiota, butyrate-producing bacteria and butyrate fermentation in weaned pigs. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2011;75:402–413.

– Miller G, Matthews SP, Reinheckel T, Fleming S, Watts C. Asparagine endopeptidase is required for normal kidney physiology and homeostasis. FASEB J. 2011;25:1606–1617.

– Miller LJ, Bainton DF, Borregaard N, Springer TA. Stimulated mobilization of monocyte Mac-1 and p150,95 adhesion proteins from an intracellular vesicular compartment to the cell surface. J Clin Invest 1987;80:535–44.

– Moradali MF, Mostafavi H, Ghods S, Hedjaroude GA. Immunomodulating and anticancer agents in the realm of macromycetes fungi (macrofungi). Int Immunopharmacol 2007;7:701–24.

– Morikawa K, Takeda R, Yamazaki M, Mizuno D. Induction of tumoricidal activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes by a linear beta-1,3-d-glucan and other immunomodulators in murine cells. Cancer Res1985;45:1496–501.

– Morita Y, Araki H, Sugimoto T, Takeuchi K, Yamane T, Maeda T, et al. Legumain/asparaginyl endopeptidase controls extracellular matrix remodeling through the degradation of fibronectin in mouse renal proximal tubular cells. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:1417–1424.

– Mukai H, Watanabe T, Ando M, Katsumata N. An alternative medicine, Agaricus blazei, may have induced severe hepatic dysfunction in cancer patients. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2006;36:808–810.

– Murakawa K, Fukunaga K, Tanouchi M, Hosokawa M, Hossain Z, Takahashi K. Therapy of myeloma in vivo using marine phospholipid in combination with Agaricus blazei Murill as an immune respond activator. Journal of Oleo Science. 2007;56(4):179–188.

– Murthy RV, Arbman G, Gao J, Roodman GD, Sun XF. Legumain expression in relation to clinicopathologic and biological variables in colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:2293–2299.

– N. P. Singh, M. T. McCoy, R. R. Tice, and E. L. Schneider, “A simple technique for quantitation of low levels of DNA damage in individual cells,” Experimental Cell Research, vol. 175, no. 1, pp. 184–191, 1988.

– N. V. Savina, N. V. Nikitchenko, T. D. Kuzhir, A. I. Rolevich, S. A. Krasny, and R. I. Goncharova, “The cellular response to oxidatively induced DNA damage and polymorphism of some DNA repair genes associated with clinicopathological features of bladder cancer,” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2016, Article ID 5710403, 13 pages, 2016.

– Nakajima A, Ishida T, Koga M, Takeuchi T, Mazda O, Takeuchi M. Effect of hot water extract from Agaricus blazei Murill on antibody-producing cells in mice. Int Immunopharmacol 2002;2:1205–11.

– Nakazato H, Koike A, Saji S, Ogawa N, Sakamoto J. Efficacy of immunochemotherapy as adjuvant treatment after curative resection of gastric cancer. Study Group of Immunochemotherapy with PSK for Gastric Cancer. Lancet 1994;343:1122–6.

– Nielsen KF. Mycotoxin production by indoor moulds. Fungal Genet Biol 2003;39:103–17.

– Niu YC, Liu JC, Zhao XM, Wu XX. A low molecular weight polysaccharide isolated from Agaricus blazei suppresses tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo. Oncology Reports. 2009;21(1):145–152.

– Oh TW, Kim YA, Jang WJ, et al. Semipurified fractions from the submerged-culture broth of Agaricus blazei Murill reduce blood glucose levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2010;58(7):4113–4119.

– Ohno N, Egawa Y, Hashimoto T, Adachi Y, Yadomae T. Effect of beta-glucans on the nitric oxide synthesis by peritoneal macrophage in mice. Biol Pharm Bull 1996;19:608–12.

– Ohno N, Furukawa M, Miura NN, Adachi Y, Motoi M, Yadomae T. Antitumor β-glucan from the cultured fruit body of Agaricus blazei . Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2001;24(7):820–828.

– Okazaki M, Chiba N, Adachi Y, Ohno N, Yadomae T. Signal transduction pathway on beta-glucans-triggered hydrogen peroxide production by murine peritoneal macrophages in vitro. Biol Pharm Bull 1996;19:18–23.

– Ooi VE, Liu F. Immunomodulation and anti-cancer activity of polysaccharide-protein complexes. Curr Med Chem 2000;7:715–29.

– Ormstad H, Groeng EC, Løvik M, Hetland G. The fungal cell wall component β-1,3-glucan has an adjuvant effect on the allergic response to ovalbumin in mice. J Toxicol Environ Health Part A. 2000;61:55–67.

– Oshiman K, Fujimiya Y, Ebina T, Suzuki I, Noji M. Orally administered beta-1,6-D-polyglucose extracted from Agaricus blazei results in tumor regression in tumor-bearing mice. Planta Med 2002;68:610–4.

– P. H. Gameiro, J. S. Nascimento, B. H. G. Rocha, C. F. B. Piana, R. A. Santos, and C. S. Takahashi, “Antimutagenic effect of aqueous extract from agaricus brasiliensis on culture of human lymphocytes,” Journal of Medicinal Food, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 180–183, 2013.

– Paulsen JE. Modulation by dietary factors in murine FAP models. Toxicology Letters. 2000;112:403–9.

– Paulsen JE, Elvsaas IK, Steffensen IL, Alexander J. A fish oil derived concentrate enriched in eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid as ethyl ester suppresses the formation and growth of intestinal polyps in the Min mouse. Carcinogenesis. 1997 Oct;18(10):1905–10.

– Pelligrini P, Berghella AM, Del Beato T, et al. Disregulation in TH1 and TH2 subsets of CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood of colorectal cancer patients and involvement in cancer establishment and progession. Cancer Research. 1998;42:1–8.

– Pinheiro F, Faria RR, de Camargo JL, Spinardi-Barbisan AL, da Eira AF, Barbisan LF. Chemoprevention of preneoplastic liver foci development by dietary mushroom Agaricus blazei Murrill in the rat. Food Chem Toxicol. 2003 Nov;41(11):1543–50.

– R. C. Luiz, B. Q. Jordão, A. F. Da Eira, L. R. Ribeiro, and M. S. Mantovani, “Non-mutagenic or genotoxic effects of medicinal aqueous extracts from the Agaricus blazei mushroom in V79 cells,” Cytologia, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2003.

– R. C. R. N. Menoli, M. S. Mantovani, L. R. Ribeiro, G. Speit, and B. Q. Jordão, “Antimutagenic effects of the mushroom Agaricus blazei Murrill extracts on V79 cells,” Mutation Research – Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, vol. 496, no. 1-2, pp. 5–13, 2001.

– R. D. Delmanto, P. L. A. De Lima, M. M. Sugui et al., “Antimutagenic effect of Agaricus blazei Murrill mushroom on the genotoxicity induced by cyclophosphamide,” Mutation Research, vol. 496, no. 1-2, pp. 15–21, 2001.

– R. W. Kerrigan, “Agaricus subrufescens, a cultivated edible and medicinal mushroom, and its synonyms,” Mycologia, vol. 97, no. 1, pp. 12–24, 2005.

– Rainard P, Riollet C, Poutrel B, Paape MJ. Phagocytosis and killing of Staphylococcus aureus by bovine neutrophils after priming by tumor necrosis factor-alpha and the des-arginine derivative of C5a. Am J Vet Res2000;61:951–9.

– Reynolds JA, Kastello MD, Harrington DG, Crabbs CL, Peters CJ, Jemski JV, Scott GH, Di Luzio NR. Glucan-induced enhancement of host resistance to selected infectious diseases. Infect Immun. 1980;30:51–57.

– Riggi S, Di Luzio NR. Identification of a RE stimulating agent in zymosan. Am J Physiol 1961;200:297–300.

– Roeder A, Kirschning CJ, Rupec RA, Schaller M, Weindl G, Korting HC. Toll-like receptors as key mediators in innate antifungal immunity. Medical Mycology. 2004;42(6):485–498.

– Romagnani S. The Th1/Th2 paradigm. Immunology Today. 1997;18:263–266.

– Ross GD, Vetvicka V, Yan J, Xia Y, Vetvicková J. Therapeutic intervention with complement and beta-glucan in cancer. Immunopharmacology 1999;42:61–74.

– S. I. R. Franke, D. Prá, B. Erdtmann, J. A. P. Henriques, and J. Da Silva, “Influence of orange juice over the genotoxicity induced by alkylating agents: an in vivo analysis,” Mutagenesis, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 279–283, 2005.

– S. J. Huang and J.-L. Mau, “Antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts from Agaricus blazei with various doses of γ-irradiation,” LWT – Food Science and Technology, vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 707–716, 2006.

– S. K. Chung, T. Osawa, and S. Kawakishi, “Hydroxyl radical-scavenging effects of spices and scavengers from brown mustard (Brassica nigra),” Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 118–123, 1997.

– S. Wasser, “Medicinal mushrooms as a source of antitumor and immunomodulating polysaccharides,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 258–274, 2002.

– S. Y. Tsai, H.-L. Tsai, and J.-L. Mau, “Antioxidant properties of Agaricus blazei, Agrocybe cylindracea, and Boletus edulis,” LWT—Food Science and Technology, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 1392–1402, 2007.

– Schetter AJ, Heegaard NHH, Harris CC. Inflammation and cancer: interweaving microRNA, free radical, cytokine and p53 pathways. Carcinogenesis. 2009;31(1):37–49. Article ID bgp272.

– Seljelid R. A water-soluble aminated beta-1-3D-glucan derivative causes regression of solid tumores in mice. Biosci Rep. 1986;6:845–851.

– Seljelid R, Rasmussen LT, Larm O, Hoffman J. The protective effect of beta 1-3d-glucan-derivatized plastic beads against Escherichia coli infection in mice. Scand J Immunol 1987;25:55–60.

– Shimizu S, Kitada H, Yokota H et al. Activation of the alternative complement pathway by Agaricus blazeiMurill. Phytomedicine 2002;9:536–45.

– Sodring M, Gunnes G, Paulsen JE. Spontaneous initiation, promotion, and progression of colorectal cancer in the novel A/J Min/+ mouse. Int J Cancer. 2016 Apr 15;138(8):1936–46.

– Sorimachi K, Akimoto K, Ikehara Y, Inafuku K, Okubo A, Yamazaki S. Secretion of TNF-α, IL-8 and nitric oxide by macrophages activated with Agaricus blazei Murill fractions in vitro. Cell Structure and Function. 2001;26(2):103–108.

– Sorimachi K, Akimoto K, Koge T. Inhibitory Effect of Agaricus blazei Murill Components on Abnormal Collagen Fiber Formation in Human Hepatocarcinoma Cells. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2008;72:621–3.

– Sorimachi K, Ikehara Y, Maezato G et al. Inhibition by Agaricus blazei Murill fractions of cytopathic effect induced by western equine encephalitis (WEE) virus on VERO cells in vitro. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem2001;65:1645–7.

– Su LK, Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B, Preisinger AC, Moser AR, Luongo C, et al. Multiple Intestinal Neoplasia Caused by a Mutation in the Murine Homolog of the Apc Gene. Science. 1992;256(5057):668–70.

– Suehiro M, Kishimoto S. Cheilitis due to Agaricus blazei Murill mushroom extract. Contact Derm. 2007;56:293–294.

– Suzuki I, Itani T, Ohno N, Oikawa S, Sato K, et al. Antitumor activity of a polysaccharide fraction extracted from cultured fruiting bodies of Grifola frondosa. J Pharmacobiodyn. 1984 Jul;7(7):492–500.

– Suzuki T, Ohno N, Saito K, Yadomae T. Activation of the complement system by (1→3)-β-D-glucans having different degrees of branching and different ultrastructures. Journal of Pharmacobio-Dynamics. 1992;15(6):277–285.

– T. Mizuno, T. Kinoshita, C. Zhuang, H. Ito, and Y. Mayuzumi, “Antitumor-active heteroglycans from niohshimeji mushroom, tricholoma giganteum,” Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 568–571, 1995.

– T. Savić, A. Patenković, M. Soković, J. Glamočlija, M. Andjelković, and L. J. L. D. van Griensven, “The Effect of Royal Sun Agaricus, Agaricus brasiliensis S. Wasser et al., extract on methyl methanesulfonate caused genotoxicity in Drosophila melanogaster,” International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 377–385, 2011.

– Taguchi T, Furue H, Kimura T, Kondo T, Hattori T, Ogawa N. Clinical efficacy of lentinan on neoplastic diseases. Adv Exp Med Biol 1983;166:181–7.

– Takaku T, Kimura Y, Okuda H. Isolation of an antitumor compound from Agaricus blazei Murill and its mechanism of action. Journal of Nutrition. 2001;131(5):1409–1413.

– Takimoto H, Kato H, Kaneko M, Kumazawa Y. Amelioration of skewed Th1/Th2 balance in tumor-bearing and asthma-induced mice by oral administration of Agaricus blazei extracts. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2008;30:747–760.

– Tanaka H, Tsunematsu K, Makamura N, Suzuki K, Tanaka N, Takeya I, Saikai T, Abe S. Successful treatment of hyper-sensitivity pneumonitis caused by Grifola frondosa (Maitake) mushroom using a HFA-BDP extra-fine aerosol. Intern Med. 2004;43:737–740.

– Tangen JM, Tierens A, Caers J, Binsfeld M, Olstad OK, Trøseid AM et al. Immunomodulatory effects of the Agaricus blazei Murrill-based mushroom extract AndoSan in patients with multiple myeloma undergoing high dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation: a randomized, double blinded clinical study. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:718539.

– Tangen J-M, Tryggestad AMA and Hetland G. Stimulation of human monocytic cells by the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill induces expression of cell surface markers associated with activation and antigen presentation. Applied Scientific Reports. 2014; 1(1): 1.

– Tapper H, Sundler R. Glucan receptor and zymosan-induced lysosomal enzyme secretion in macrophages. Biochem J 1995;306:829–35.

– Tian X, Lun Z, Wang J, Ito H, Simura K. Clinical observation on treatment of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia with Agaricus blazei Murill. J Lanzhou Med College 1994;20:169–71.

– Toi M, Hattori T, Akagi M et al. Randomized adjuvant trial to evaluate the addition of tamoxifen and PSK to chemotherapy in patients with primary breast cancer. 5-Year results from the Nishi-Nippon Group of the Adjuvant Chemoendocrine Therapy for Breast Cancer Organization. Cancer 1992;70:2475–83.

– Torisu M, Hayashi Y, Ishimitsu T et al. Significant prolongation of disease-free period gained by oral polysaccharide K (PSK) administration after curative surgical operation of colorectal cancer. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1990;31:261–8.

– Tryggestad AMA, Espevik T, Førland DT, Ryan L, Hetland G. The Medical Mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill Activates NF-κB via TLR2. 13th International Congress of Immunology, Rio de Janeiro, 2007: P2.23 INI-02 Signalling pathways of innate immune receptors; P1193.

– van Es JH, Giles RH, Clevers HC. The many faces of the tumor suppressor gene APC. Exp Cell Res. 2001;264(1):126–34.

– Vetvicka V, Thornton BP, Ross GD. Soluble β-glucan polysaccharide binding to the lectin site of neutrophil or natural killer cell complement receptor type 3 (CD11b/CD18) generates a primed state of the receptor capable of mediating cytotoxicity of iC3b-opsonized target cells. J Clin Invest. 1996;98:50–61.

– Viola A. Improving cancer immunotherapy by preventing chemokine nitration. European Journal of Cancer Supplment. 2010;8:p. 89.

– Volman JJ, Helsper JPFG, Wei S, et al. Effects of mushroom-derived β-glucan-rich polysaccharide extracts on nitric oxide production by bone marrow-derived macrophages and nuclear factor-κb transactivation in Caco-2 reporter cells: can effects be explained by structure? Molecular Nutrition and Food Research. 2010;54(2):268–276.

– Wan GH, Li CS, Guo SP, Rylander R, Lin RH. An airborne mold-derived product, beta-1,3-D-glucan potentiates airway allergic responses. Eur J Immunol. 1999;29:2491–2497.

– Wasser SP, Weis AL. Therapeutic effects of substances occurring in higher basidiomycetes mushrooms: a modern perspective. Critical Reviews in Immunology. 1999;19(1):65–96.

– Xiaohui T, Lun Z, Wang J, et al. Clinical observation on treatment of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia with Agaricus blazei Murill. Journal of Lanzhou Medical College. 1994;20:169–171.

– Y. Shi, A. E. James, I. F. F. Benzie, and J. A. Buswell, “Genoprotective activity of edible and medicinal mushroom components,” International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, vol. 6, pp. 1–14, 2004.

– Yazawa Y, Yokota M, Sugiyama K. Antitumor promoting effect of an active component of polyporus, ergosterol and related compounds on rat urinary bladder carcinogenesis in a short-term test with concanavalin A. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2000;23(11):1298–1302.

– Yoo JY, Kim SS. Probiotics and Prebiotics: Present Status and future perspectives on metabolic disorders. Nutrients. 2016 Mar 18;8(3). Pii: E173.

– Yoshimura K, Kamoto T, Ogawa O, et al. Medical mushrooms used for biochemical failure after radical treatment for prostate cancer: an open-label study. International Journal of Urology. 2010;17(6):548–554.

– Yu CH, Kan SF, Shu CH, Lu TJ, Sun-Hwang L, Wang PS. Inhibitory mechanisms of Agaricus blazeiMurill on the growth of prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 2009;20(10):753–764.

– Yuminamochi E, Koike T, Takeda K, Horiuchi I, Okumura K. Interleukin-12- and interferon-gamma-mediated natural killer cell activation by Agaricus blazei Murill. Immunology. 2007;121:197–206.

– Z. da Rosa Guterres, M. S. Mantovani, A. F. da Eira, L. R. Ribeiro, and B. Q. Jordão, “Genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of organic extracts of mushroom Agaricus blazei Murrill on V79 cells,” Genetics and Molecular Biology, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 458–463, 2005.

– Z. R. Guterrez, M. S. Mantovani, A. F. Eira, L. R. Ribeiro, and B. Q. Jordão, “Variation of the antimutagenicity effects of water extracts of Agaricus blazei Murrill in vitro,” Toxicology in Vitro, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 301–309, 2004.

– Ziliotto L, Pinheiro F, Barbisan LF, Rodrigues MAM. Screening for in vitro and in vivo antitumor activities of the mushroom Agaricus blazei. Nutrition and Cancer, 2009;61(2), 245–250.

– Zittermann A. Effects of vitamin K on calcium and bone metabolism. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care. 2001;4(6):483–487.